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SNC2P. Acids and Bases. Acids and Bases. And neutralization reactions. Acids. Substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) when mixed in water Physical Properties: Sour tasting Wet to the touch when in solution Water soluble Good conductors of electricity, therefore electrolytes.

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Snc2p

SNC2P

Acids and Bases


Acids and bases

Acids and Bases

And neutralization reactions


Acids
Acids

  • Substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) when mixed in water

  • Physical Properties:

    • Sour tasting

    • Wet to the touch when in solution

    • Water soluble

    • Good conductors of electricity, therefore electrolytes


Acids1
Acids

  • Chemical Properties

    • React with metals to produce hydrogen gas

    • Corrosive

    • Make chemical indicators change colour

    • React with bases to produce a neutral solution


Acids2
Acids

  • Examples:


Bases
Bases

  • Substances that release hydroxide ions (OH-)when mixed in water. Also called alkaline

  • Physical Properties:

    • Bitter tasting

    • Slippery to the touch when in solution

    • Water soluble

    • Good conductors of electricity, therefore electrolytes


Bases1
Bases

  • Chemical Properties

    • Corrosive

    • Make chemical indicators change colour

    • React with acids to produce a neutral solution


Bases2
Bases

  • Examples:


Chemical indicators
Chemical Indicators

  • Are solutions that change colour in acids and in bases

  • Can be either

    • natural or

    • synthetic


Chemical indicators1
Chemical Indicators

  • Litmus paper:

    • Base turns it Blue!

    • Acid turns it Red!

Universal Indicator is a mixture of chemicals that changes colour through a wide range of pH values


The ph scale
The pH scale

  • A numerical scale used to show how acidic or basic a solution is

  • pH stands for “power of hydrogen”


The ph scale1
The pH scale

  • pH is a logarithmic scale which means that every unit on the scale represents a tenfold (10X) effect on the concentration of the solution


The ph scale logarithmic
The pH scale: Logarithmic

  • This means that pH 3 is 10 times more acidic than ph 4.

  • If the value changes by more than one number you must multiply

    • ex. From pH 5 to pH 8 = 10 x 10 x 10 (3 steps = 10 multiplied by itself 3 times)


Naming acids
Naming Acids

  • A binary acid forms when an H+ bonds with a non-metal

  • HF (aq), HCl (aq), HBr (aq), HI (aq), H2S (aq), and H3P (aq) are some common binary acids

  • To name them, use the following structure:

    • “hydro + ______ ic acid”


Naming acids1
Naming Acids

  • An oxyacid has a non-metal and an oxygen component

  • H3PO4, HClO3, HIO3, H2SO4, HBrO3, H2CO3, and HNO3 are some common oxyacids

  • To name them:

    • “_____________ ic acid”


Naming bases
Naming Bases

  • Name the metal

  • Name the polyatomic (i.e. hydroxide)

  • Example

    • Mg(OH)2

    • magnesium hydroxide


Neutralization reactions
Neutralization Reactions

  • A type of double displacement reaction

  • Acid + Base Water + Salt

  • A salt is an ionic compound. The pH of the products is around 7 (neutral)

    Example

    hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide 

    water + sodium chloride


Practise
Practise!!

  • Try the practise questions on your worksheet!