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Academic english iii. September 12, 2012. Today. Making a summary Argumentation (continued). Summaries. Over the semester, you will do 4 “Summary & Response” assignments. First assignment: September 19 th (Next Wednesday). Assignment:

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academic english iii

Academic english iii

September 12, 2012

  • Making a summary
  • Argumentation (continued)
  • Over the semester, you will do 4 “Summary & Response” assignments.
  • First assignment: September 19th (Next Wednesday).


- There will be a short reading. Read it and make a summary.

- There will be 3 questions related to the reading. Follow the instructions and answer 2 questions.

  • Make sure you read the instructions carefully!
  • Submit by Wednesday 11:59 p.m.
  • Send to this address (as a word attachment):

Subject: Summary 1

Do not send your assignment to my personal address.

  • A shortened or condensed version.
  • The purpose is to share the main ideas.
  • Summaries keep the same tone as the original. They do not contain opinion.
  • No formal conclusion is required.
making a summary
Making a summary

Step 1: Do a quick check of the original passage.

  • Look at: - title - subtitle (if there is one) - first and last paragraphs - First and last sentences in each paragraph. - anything in bold or italics.
making a summary1
Making a summary

Step 2: Read the entire passage.

  • You may need to read it several times (that’s OK).
  • Do not slow down as you read.
  • Mark (underline, circle, etc.) the main points and key supporting details.
making a summary2
Making a summary

Step 3: Re-read the important parts.

  • Re-read the main points and key supporting details that you marked previously.
  • Look for any key points you missed.
making a summary3
Making a summary

Step 4: Make notes on the material.

  • Write the notes on a separate piece of paper.
  • Concentrate on writing down the main ideas and key supporting points.
making a summary4
Making a summary

Step 5: Write the summary.

  • Write the summary from your notes.
  • Don’t look at the original while you are writing.
  • Remember: you want to use your own words.
making a summary5
Making a summary

Step 6: Check.

  • Check your summary against the original to make sure you have not changed the meaning.
  • Edit and revise, then write the final draft.
making a summary6
Making a summary

Step 7: Final draft.

  • Edit and revise, then write the final draft.
making a summary summary
Making a summary…summary
  • 1. Quick check
  • 2. Read + mark
  • 3. Re-read
  • 4. Take notes
  • 5. Write
  • 6. Check
  • 7. Right again
  • Practice:
  • Textbook pp. 32 – 35 (section 1.9)
  • After you try the exercises, check the answers on pp. 210 – 211.

The invention of the process of printing from movable type, which occurred in Germany about the middle of the fifteenth century, was destined to exercise a far-reaching influence on all the vernacular languages of Europe. Introduced into England about 1476 by William Caxton, who had learned the art on the continent, printing made such rapid progress that a scant century later it was observed that manuscript books were seldom to be met with and almost never used. Some idea of the rapidity with which the new process swept forward may be had from the fact that in Europe the number of books printed before the year 1500 reached the surprising figure of 35,000. The majority of these, it is true, were in Latin, whereas it is in the modern languages that the effect of the printing press is chiefly felt. But in England over 20,000 titles in English had appeared by 1640, ranging all the way from mere pamphlets to massive folios. The result was to bring books, which had formerly been the expensive luxury of the few, within the reach of all. More important, however, was the fact, so obvious today, that it was possible to reproduce a book in a thousand copies or a hundred thousand, every one exactly like the other. A powerful force thus existed for promoting a standard uniform language, and the means were now available for spreading that language throughout the territory in which it was understood. (Baugh, A History of the English Language)


Printing from movable type, invented in Germany about 1450 and brought to England about 1476, had a far-reaching influence on all European languages. Within a hundred years, manuscript books had become rare. Though at first most printed books were in Latin, over 20,000 titles in English had appeared by 1640. Books were now within the reach of everyone and could exert a powerful standardizing influence upon the language.

(67 words)  Original was 250 words.

  • Check the website for more examples!
  • Evaluation:

For the first assignment, I will be looking for:

  • Statement of main ideas.
  • Identification of the most important details.
  • Maintaining of the original’s meaning.

You will receive a score for the responses as well, but these are mostly for further practice.

argumentative writing
Argumentative writing

Paper 1: A 5-paragraph argumentative essay

Important dates:

1. First draft: September 24th (Peer editing day)

2. Final draft: September 26th

Form: “Point-by-point Pattern”

paper 1
Paper 1


Topic: Choose ONE

Most study-abroad programs should be renamed "party abroad": they are a waste of time and money.

Koreans should have more holidays and longer vacations.

The production and sale of cigarettes should be made illegal.

paper 11
Paper 1
  • Choose a topic.
  • Choose a position on your topic:

Position: Either you support or oppose the topic.

paper 12
Paper 1


Each body paragraph must use AT LEAST one source for your evidence.

paper 13
Paper 1

This paper will follow APA format (we will discuss this next week).


Title page


References section

paper 14
Paper 1

For now: Choose a topic and start doing research on it.

Website reading: Good vs. Poor sources.

argumentative essay
Argumentative Essay
  • An essay in which you agree or disagree with an issue…

using REASONS to support your claim.

The goal: convince the reader of the strength of your claim (not necessarily that your claim is “right”).

This kind of writing is common in writing sections of tests, like TOEFL.

argumentative essay1
Argumentative Essay
  • Requires the writer to investigate a topic,
  • collect and evaluate evidence,
  • and establish a position on the topic.
issue or prompt
Issue or “prompt”
  • Your issue must be arguable.

i.e., “Smoking should be illegal”


“Smoking is harmful to people’s health.”


not arguable

argumentative essay2
Argumentative Essay
  • Requires that you have knowledge of both sides of the issue.

i.e., Separating boys and girls during middle school years.

- information in support of this.

- information against this.

introductory paragraph
Introductory paragraph
  • Grab the reader’s attention.
  • Explain the issue (a necessary part of an argumentative essay, obviously).
  • Move towards…
argumentative essay3
Argumentative Essay
  • What is an absolutely fundamental part of an argumentative essay (and any essay, really) ??

A clear, strong thesis statement.

argumentative essay4
Argumentative Essay

Choose a stance (position) on a topic, and SUPPORT your stance with EVIDENCE (reasons):

  • Statistics
  • Examples
  • Quotes
  • A strong, clear thesis statement
  • Counter arguments
  • Rebuttal (your arguments)
  • Conclusion
  • For Paper 1, we will use the Point-by-Point Pattern.
point by point pattern
Point-by-Point Pattern
  • Introduction
  • Body

A. i. Other side’s 1stargument (counter argument 1) ii. Rebuttal (clear reasoning and evidence)

B. i. Other side’s 2ndargument (counter argument 2) ii. Rebuttal (clear reasoning and evidence)

C. i. Other side’s 3rdargument (counter argument 3) ii. Rebuttal (clear reasoning and evidence)

III. Concluding paragraph

thesis statement
Thesis statement

The thesis statement must be debatable

“Smoking should be illegal”


“Smoking is harmful to people’s health.”

thesis statement1
Thesis statement

Debatable thesis statements:

“At least thirty percent of the school’s budget should be spent on free coffee for students.”

“America’s anti-pollution policies should focus on privately owned cars.”

thesis statement2
Thesis statement

Debatable thesis statements:

Clearly state the side of the issue you support

“Curfew laws are unfair and should be abolished”

You may also mention the opposing point of view.

“Despite claims that curfew laws are necessary to control teenage gangs, curfew laws are clearly unconstitutional.”

thesis statement3
Thesis statement

“Despite claims that curfew laws are unnecessary to control teenage gangs, curfew laws are clearly unconstitutional.”

“Despite claims that curfew laws are unnecessary to control teenage gangs, curfew laws are clearly unconstitutional because…”

supporting your position
Supporting your position
  • Present the opposing view, then REFUTE it.
  • This is called a rebuttal or counter-argument.
supporting your claims point by point
Supporting your claims (point-by-point)
  • Make a claim (your thesis).
  • Counterclaim: A claim that disagrees with your thesis.
  • Rebuttal: Evidence that disagrees (or disproves) the counterclaim.
counter argument rebuttal
  • Practice

Many claims have been made that men are the superior gender in terms of intelligence. However, evidence shows that this is not true…