Flaws in Arguments (2)

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# Flaws in Arguments (2) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Flaws in Arguments (2). Critical Thinking D Gray March 2007 September 2009. Over generalisation. Boys are better than girls Accountants are boring People from Henley are posh Maths teachers are cool Identifying words: Generally Most On average Usually. Slippery Slope. Causation

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### Flaws in Arguments(2)

Critical Thinking

D Gray

March 2007

September 2009

Over generalisation
• Boys are better than girls
• Accountants are boring
• People from Henley are posh
• Maths teachers are cool

Identifying words:

• Generally
• Most
• On average
• Usually
Slippery Slope
• Causation
• Corroboration
• Extremes

Use of drugs

Violence in films

Euthanasia

Slippery Slope

An argument which states that once the first step occurs, it leads, often inevitably, to further steps and to increasingly undesirable circumstances.

Slippery Slope

If you don’t do your homework, you’ll fail the critical thinking exam, get thrown out of school and end up working in McDonalds.

“Fries with that sir?”

Confusing necessary andsufficient conditions

Necessary: Something which must happen for something else to happen.

Sufficient: Something which must happen in order to be certain that something else will happen.

Circular Arguments

An argument in which the reason and conclusion are the same.

Critical thinking is the best A level subject because it’s better than all the others.

Restricting the Options

Only giving two or three different, extreme choices.

If we don’t set six hours of homework a night, and just don’t set any homework then students will fail all their subjects. Therefore we must set six hours a night.

Inconsistency

Errors in reasoning can weaken or destroy an argument

Killing people is wrong. Murder is the ultimate crime deserving the ultimate punishment. Therefore, capital punishment for murder is justified.