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Learning. Learning: A long-term change in behavior resulting from experience. Classical Conditioning: A neutral stimulus is paired with another that causes reflexive behavior, and, in time, is sufficient to produce that behavior. . Pavlov: Classical Conditioning. Terms.

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  • Learning: A long-term change in behavior resulting from experience.
  • Classical Conditioning: A neutral stimulus is paired with another that causes reflexive behavior, and, in time, is sufficient to produce that behavior.
  • Unconditioned stimulus (US): A stimulus that elicits an automatic response (UR) without prior learning.
  • Unconditioned response (UR): Reflexive response elicited by a particular stimulus.
  • Conditioned Stimulus (CS): An originally neutral stimulus that acquires significance through “conditioning” of repeated pairings with a US.
  • Conditioned Response (CR): A response that depends on pairings of the CS and US. Once learned, it occurs when the CS is presented alone.

Classical Conditioning

Pavlov’s experiment:





Food paired with a






Classical Conditioning

Pavlov’s experiment:

The BELL becomes associated with food, until finally





making it meaningful
Making it Meaningful
  • So, What is the “so-what” of all of this??
more examples
More Examples
  • Phobias (dog, open spaces)
  • Drug overdose
  • Therapy
  • Nausea/immune response: chemotherapy
  • Sexy advertising (Watson again!)
  • Taste aversion
what affects cc learning
What affects CC learning
  • Number of pairings
  • Strength of UCS (e.g. illness, severe bite, panic attack…)
  • Reliability of CS in predicting US
  • Occurrence of CS just before US (Forward Conditioning)
    • What if the tone after the food?
final cc terms
Final CC terms
  • Acquisition: Initial learning of the conditioned response.
  • Extinction: CR is eliminated by repeated presentation of the CS with no US.
  • Stimulus Generalization: CR is elicited by other things that are like the CS
    • E.g. fear all dentists!

Abusive relationships

final cc terms16
Final CC terms
  • Stimulus Discrimination: Ability to distinguish among similar CS
  • Higher Order Conditioning: CS serves as an US when paired with a new CS
    • e.g. Cane before rat

Smoking: Coffee/cigarettes/room

operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • The process by which a behavior becomes associated with its consequences.
    • Is voluntary, non-reflexive behavior
  • Thorndike Puzzle Box: Trial and error learning.

Next 2 slides: Allyn & Bacon, 2003


Operant Conditioning


chances of


followed by



Thorndike's Law of Effect

Good Outcome




Bad Outcome


  • Law of Effect: Actions that lead to a “satisfying state of affairs” are more likely to be repeated.
principles continued
Principles (Continued)
  • Reinforcement: Process by which consequences lead to an increase in the likelihood that the response will occur again.
    • Response contingency: Consequence depends on behavior.
    • Reinforcer: Object or event that comes after a response that increases its occurrence.
not always so obvious
Not always so obvious..
  • Skipping class
  • Drinking (goes both ways)
  • Child misbehavior (lollipop example: goes both ways).
  • Understanding these patterns (how reinforcers really work in real life) is difficult.
reinforcement explained types
Reinforcement Explained: Types
  • Primary reinforcement: An event or object that is inherently reinforcing.
  • Secondary reinforcement: An object or event that is not satisfy a physical need.
types of reinforcement
Types of Reinforcement
  • Positive Reinforcement: Reinforcement presented after a behavior, increasing likelihood it will occur.
  • Negative Reinforcement: An unpleasant event or circumstance is removed following a desired behavior, increasing likelihood it will occur.
finding what works
Finding What Works

Positive reinforcement examples:

Using stickers w/children

Using food rewards

Getting play time

Getting T.V. time

finding what works27
Finding What Works

Negative reinforcement examples:

Whining child/father

Alcohol withdrawal/drink again

Skipping class

Saying “I’m Sorry”

types of punishment
Types of Punishment
  • Positive Punishment: A behavior leads to an undesired consequence, thereby decreasing its likelihood.
  • Negative Punishment: A behavior lead to the removal of a pleasant event or circumstance, thereby decreasing its likelihood.
punishment examples
Punishment: Examples
  • Positive Punishment: Spanking, a hangover, verbal criticism
  • Negative punishment: Taking candy away, removing privileges, the “silent treatment”
think of it this way
Think of it this way…
  • Positive: To add something
  • Negative: To take something away.
learning review and overview
Learning: Review and overview
  • Classical conditioning
  • Operant conditioning
    • Law of effect
    • Types of reinforcement and punishment
    • Schedules of reinforcement (next)
  • Observational learning (next)
application what about that diet or smoking
Application: What about that diet or smoking?
  • Behavior modification: Therapeutic change produced by use of secondary reinforcement.
  • Here is the bugger: Immediate reinforcement is better than delayed!!

So, how do you learn a complicated, new


learning complicated behavior
Learning Complicated Behavior

AND, how do you Just how do you get a dolphin to jump through hoops, a person to become a master athlete?

use of reinforcement
Use of Reinforcement

Partial reinforcement is used for teaching and encouraging all types of behavior!

Also, explains addictions.

schedules of reinforcement all involve partial reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement (all involve partial reinforcement) -
  • Fixed Ratio
  • Variable Ratio
  • Fixed Interval
  • Variable Interval…schedules determine speed and rate of behavior!
schedules of reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Fixed Interval: Reward comes after a fixed amount of time. Ex. FI 10, FI 30, FI 50
    • Bonus at work (2 years)
    • Weekly paycheck
    • Study breaks (2 hours)

…..Behavior slows down right after reward and speed up right before.

schedules of reinforcement39
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Variable Interval: Reinforcement is given after a variable interval of time (averaged). VI 15, VI 30, VI 50
    • Intermittent study breaks
    • …….bonuses
    • …….weight loss

Consistent but slow responding

schedules of reinforcement40
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Fixed Ratio: Reinforcement after a fixed ratio of responses. Ex. FR 10, FR 30
    • Factory work & assembly lines
    • Treat, after doing 6 chores
    • Bonus for every 6th social behavior, autistic

….High rate of response, quick rest, high rate again

schedules of reinforcement41
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Variable Ratio: Reinforcement is given after a variable ratio of responses (averaged). I.e. VR 10, VR 40, VR 5
    • Slot machines
    • Attention from parent/good behavior
    • Abusive relationships

….. Frequent, consistent, and high rate of behavior.