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Cold Related Emergencies. Factors That Promote Susceptibility To Cold. Unfit (conflicting) >50 years and small children Alcohol and caffeine consumption Use of tobacco products Previous cold related emergency Inactivity in cold. Cold Factors #2. Dehydration Nutrition Illness Injury

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Presentation Transcript
factors that promote susceptibility to cold
Factors That Promote Susceptibility To Cold
  • Unfit (conflicting)
  • >50 years and small children
  • Alcohol and caffeine consumption
  • Use of tobacco products
  • Previous cold related emergency
  • Inactivity in cold
cold factors 2
Cold Factors #2
  • Dehydration
  • Nutrition
  • Illness
  • Injury
  • Wind
  • Wet clothing (transfers heat from the body)
proper clothing
Proper Clothing
  • 3 layers of clothing
    • Purpose is to insulate by trapping layers of air
    • A single heavy layer is not recommended
additional considerations
Additional Considerations
  • Cap
    • 50-60% of body’s heat is lost through the head
  • Neck
    • Site of significant heat loss
    • Gloves / Boots
cold related emergencies6
Cold Related Emergencies
  • Hypothermia
  • Frostbite
hypothermia
Hypothermia
  • Core body temperature of 95 or less
  • May be mild or profound (<90 degrees)
    • Core temperature of 80 degrees usually results in death
    • Can occur in temps above 32 degrees
  • Medical emergency
    • Victim may present with no heartbeat, breathing, or response to touch or pain, but may not be dead
  • All victims should be evaluated by a physician
mild hypothermia
Mild Hypothermia
  • Body temperature 90 to 95 degrees
    • (marathon)
  • Shivering
  • Slurred speech
  • Memory lapses
  • Fumbling hands
  • May stumble or stagger
  • Usually conscious and can talk
  • Cold abdomen and back
profound hypothermia
Profound Hypothermia
  • Body temperature below 90 degrees (AR hunter)
  • Shivering has ceased
  • Muscles stiff and rigid
  • Skin appears blue
  • No response to pain
  • Pulse and respirations slowed
  • Pupils dilate / Victim “appears dead” / 50-80% will die
  • Child in Canada, winter 2001, core body temp. 60
hypothermia what to do
Hypothermia: What To Do
  • Stop heat loss (more on next slide)
  • Call EMS
  • RESCUEEXAMINEINSULATETRANSPORT
  • Check ABC’s
    • Take pulse for 30-45 seconds
  • Always try to re-warm in a hospital
hypothermia stop heat loss
Hypothermia: Stop Heat Loss
  • Remove from cold environment
  • Use blankets, towels, pillows, newspapers to wrap around victim
  • Cover head
  • Replace wet clothing
hypothermia handling the victim
Hypothermia: Handling The Victim
  • Gentle handling
    • Roughness could cause cardiac arrest
  • Keep victim horizontal
    • Elevating legs would shunt cold blood to the core of the body
  • Victim should not walk or exercise - do not massage the body
    • These actions could drive cold blood into the torso resulting in temperature after-drop
hypothermia13
Hypothermia
  • Controversial:
    • Body to body contact
    • Warm drinks
  • Do not consume un-melted snow and ice
    • Lowers body temperature
    • Sometimes, that’s your only choice
hypothermia and cpr
Hypothermia and CPR
  • Do not start CPR if:
    • Body temperature 60 degrees or below
    • Frozen chest
    • Lethal injury
    • Rescurer is endangered
    • Always take pulse for 30-45 seconds
frostbite frozen tissue
Frostbite (frozen tissue)
  • Freezes deep into the skin
  • Mainly affects feet, hands, ears, nose
frostbite how damage occurs
Frostbite: How Damage Occurs
  • Freezing of tissue
    • Ice crystals form between tissue cells
  • Obstruction of blood supply to tissues
      • “Sludged” blood clots form
      • More damaging than ice crystals
frostbite signs and symptoms pre thaw
Frostbite: Signs and Symptoms (pre-thaw)
  • White, waxy or grayish-yellow skin
  • Pain followed by no feeling
  • Affected part is very cold or numb
  • Hard or crusty skin
    • Post-thaw resembles burn stages
first aid re warming
First Aid: Re-warming
  • 1. Medical center
  • 2. Rapid (wet) re-warming:
    • Preferred re-warming method outside of hospital setting in water temperatures around 103 to 105.
  • 3. Slow re-warming:
    • involves warming body to body, arm pit, etc.
  • Do not re-warm with a heating-pad, stove or over a fire
rapid re warming
Rapid Re-Warming
  • NEVER RUB FROZEN TISSUE
  • Place body parts in water 102 to 105 (20 to 40 minutes)
  • Do not re-warm if there is a chance of re-freezing
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