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I.223-304. The scene shifts from the lands to the heavens…. Venus approaches Jupiter and complains to him of the sufferings endured by Aeneas & comrades – anger, sarcasm, rhetorical questions Jupiter consoles her, promising the plan for the Trojans as decreed by the Fates remains

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the scene shifts from the lands to the heavens
The scene shifts from the lands to the heavens…
  • Venus approaches Jupiter and complains to him of the sufferings endured by Aeneas & comrades – anger, sarcasm, rhetorical questions
  • Jupiter consoles her, promising the plan for the Trojans as decreed by the Fates remains
  • Jupiter acts on his words by sending Mercury to earth to prepare the way for Aeneas & Trojans
    • Mercury acts as agent to shift back to land
jupiter surveys the world i 223 226
Jupiter surveys the world (I.223-226)

Et iam finis erat, cum Iuppiter aethere summo

despiciens mare velivolum terrasque iacentes

litoraque et latos populos, sic vertice caeli

constitit et Libyae defixit lumina regnis.


jupiter surveys the world i 223 2261
Jupiter surveys the world (I.223-226)
  • Interlocked word order
    • mare velivolum terrasque iacentis (I.224)
    • Emphasizes the mix of lands and seas and the wide extent of the world that falls under Jupiter’s power
  • Transferred epithet:
    • velivolum – sea is not filled with sails; boats are
    • Emphasizes the number of ships out in the sea
  • Polysyndeton:
    • terrasque iacentes litoraque et latos populos
    • -que, -que, et (I.224-225) – width and breadth of Jupiter’s gaze
  • Metonymy
    • lumina = oculos (I.226)
venus speech to jupiter i 229 253
Venus’ speech to Jupiter (I.229-253)

adloquitur Venus: “O qui res hominumque deumque

aeternis regis imperiis et fulmine terres,


  • Venus flatters Jupiter to get on his good side
    • Note the same technique used by Juno when she approached Aeolus to convince him to stir up the winds
  • Opens up with emotional “O” (like Aeneas in his two speeches)
  • Polysyndeton – emphasizes Jupiter’s omnipotence
venus speech to jupiter i 229 2531
Venus’ speech to Jupiter (I.229-253)

quid meus Aeneas in te committere tantum,

quid Troes potuere, quibus tot funera passis

cunctus ob Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis?


  • Opens with 2 questions – just like poet’s complaint at beginning of poem
  • Anaphora (quid…quid)
    • Repetition = highly emotional
  • meus Aeneas – first time connection between the two is mentioned
  • cunctus orbis
    • Hyberbaton & Hyperbole – reinforces the totality of the earth
venus speech to jupiter i 229 2532
Venus’ speech to Jupiter (I.229-253)

Certe hinc Romanos olim volventibus annis,

hinc fore ductores, revocato a sanguine Teucri,

qui mare, qui terras omnes dicione tenerent,

pollicitus – quae te, genitor, sententia vertit?


  • Venus reminds Jupiter of his promise & accuses him of breaking that promise
    • Anaphora – hinc, hinc; qui qui
    • Asyndeton – qui mare, qui terras (I.236)
    • Contrast between pollicitus (es) and vertit – promise/change
  • Caesura (I.237) – places emphasis on promise he made
venus speech to jupiter i 229 2533
Venus’ speech to Jupiter (I.229-253)

Hoc equidem occasum Troiae tristesque ruinas

solabar fatis contraria fata rependens;

nunc eadem fortuna viros tot casibus actos

insequitur. Quem das finem, rex magne, laborum? (I.238-241)

  • Venus focuses on her feelings
    • Stresses the way in which she was able to console herself for the destruction of Troy (solebar)
  • fatis contraria fata – fate is surrounding contraria
  • Enjambment w/ insequitur
    • Emphasizes the pursuit of the Trojans by bad “fortuna” – follows them all the way to the next line
  • Question concludes her complaint
    • Change of name from “genitor” to now “rex”
    • Recalls Aeneas’ speech to his men that “dabit deus his quoque finem”
venus speech to jupiter i 229 2534
Venus’ speech to Jupiter (I.229-253)
  • (I.242-249) – Venus uses Antenor as an example that Antenor was able to escape from the middle of the Trojan War, and after passing through many dangers, arrived at a place where he could achieve (which is what Venus wants for Aeneas):
    • safety, calm, peace
    • A city (a resurrected Troy)
    • Customs (transference of Trojan culture)
    • A new “gens” to which his name is given
    • Military power (transferred from Troy)
venus speech to jupiter i 229 2535
Venus’ speech to Jupiter (I.229-253)

Antenor potuit mediis elapsus Achivis

Illyricos penetrare sinus atque intima tutus

regna Liburnorum et fontem superare Timavi,

unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis

it mare proruptum et pelago premit arva sonanti.


  • mediis elapsus Achivis – word position – Antenor literally slips from the midst of the Greeks
  • tutus – final word – heavy emphasis; hyberbaton – very far from Antenor, heavy emphasis
  • I.244-246 – ecphrasis – description of Timavus River
    • Alliteration – murmure montis
    • Personification – river squeezes the fields
venus speech to jupiter i 229 2536
Venus’ speech to Jupiter (I.229-253)

Hic tamen ille urbem Patavi sedesque locavit

Teucrorum et genti nomen dedit armaque fixit

Troia, nunc placida compostus pace quiescit:


  • Polysyndeton (I.247-248)
  • Alliteration (I.249) emphasizes the pace
  • Syncope – compos(i)tus
venus speech to jupiter i 229 2537
Venus’ speech to Jupiter (I.229-253)

nos, tua progenies, caeliquibusadnuisarcem,

navibus (infandum!) amissisunius ob iram


Hic pietatishonos? Sic nos in sceptrareponis?”


  • Venus ends her speech with an accusation: her father has treated Antenor better than he treats his own family
  • infandum between ablative absolute = emotional
  • Italisoris – notice what it is separated by – just how far and long off Italy is to them
  • verbs – 1st person pl, passive – Venus places herself with them; passive shows these things are happening to the Trojans and have no active role in their sufferings
jupiter s prophetic response i 254 296
Jupiter’s prophetic response (I.254-296)

Olli subridenshominumsatoratquedeorum

vultu, quo caelumtempestatesqueserenat,

osculalibavitnatae, dehinctaliafatur:


  • Introduction to his speech
    • external appearance: calm, serene
    • his face = expression of internal feelings
    • enjambment – vultu – placement in following line
jupiter s prophetic response i 254 2961
Jupiter’s prophetic response (I.254-296)
  • The speech itself (I.257-296) is built on careful symmetry. Jupiter dedicates five or six lines to each major theme or time period of Roman history (except the allusion to Greece, which receives only three lines). In the central position lies the reference to the imperial destiny of Rome.
  • Speech lifts the poem above individual actions of humans to focus on the overarching destiny of the Romans
jupiter s prophetic response to venus complaints
Jupiter’s prophetic response – to Venus’ complaints

“Parcemetu, Cytherea, manentimmotatuorum

fatatibi; cernesurbem et promissaLavini

moenia, sublimemqueferes ad sideracaeli

magnanimumAenean; neque me sententiavertit.


  • Emphasis on “you/Venus” (tuorum, tibi, cernes, feres)
  • Enjambment (I.257-tibi;)
jupiter s prophetic response aeneas
Jupiter’s prophetic response – Aeneas

Hic tibi (faborenim, quandohaectecuraremordet,

longius et volvensfatorumarcanamovebo)

bellum ingensgeret Italia populosqueferoces

contundetmoresqueviris et moeniaponet,




  • Elision – fatorumarcana – intimate ties between fates and secrecy
  • Elision – bellum ingens – war is so huge it runs together
  • Polysyndeton – emphasizes list of items Aeneas will accomplish (I.263-264)
  • Chiasmus – contendunt mores (viris) moeniaponet – viris in center
  • Theme – mores / moenia – cf. Antenor accomplished already
jupiter s prophetic response ascanius
Jupiter’s prophetic response – Ascanius

At puerAscanius, cui nunc cognomen Iulo

additur (Iluserat, dum res stetitIliaregno),


imperioexplebit, regnumqueabsedeLavini

transferet, et Longammulta vi munietAlbam.


  • Chiasmus – magnosvolvendismensibusorbes (I.269)
  • Hyperbaton – LongamAlbam – surrounds “multa vi”=chiasmus
jupiter s prophetic response alba longa to romulus remus
Jupiter’s prophetic response – Alba Longa to Romulus & Remus

Hic iamter centum totosregnabiturannos

gente sub Hectorea, donecreginasacerdos

Marte gravis geminampartudabitIliaprolem.


Romulus excipietgentem et Mavortiacondet

moeniaRomanosquesuo de nomine dicet.


  • regnabitur – impersonal combines all kings together; what’s important is kingdom, not individual rulers
  • Pride in ancestry/blood-line; pride in new city (transferred power from old city); pride in new gens, giving nomen to the gens
    • *Antenor was able to give his nomen to a new gens
jupiter s prophetic response imperium romanum urbs aeterna
Jupiter’s prophetic response – imperium Romanum – urbs aeterna

His ego necmetasrerumnectemporapono:

Imperium sine fine dedi. QuinasperaIuno,

quae mare numcterrasquemetucaeulumquefatigat,

consilia in meliusreferet, mecumquefovebit

Romanos, rerum dominos gentemquetogatam.


  • dedi – perfect tense – fate has already been decided
  • Trojans didn’t wear togas, but they brought the ethics that allowed the Romans to cultivate civilization and government, symbolized by the toga
jupiter s prophetic response roman triumph over greece
Jupiter’s prophetic response – Roman triumph over Greece

Sic placitum. Venietlustrislabentibusaetas

cum domusAssaraciPhthiamclarasqueMycenas

servitiopremet ac victisdominabiturArgis.


  • Theme: revenge
  • Prominent vocabulary – the crushing of Troy’s enemy:
    • servitio / premet / victis / dominabitur
jupiter s prophetic response birth of caesar julius augustus
Jupiter’s prophetic response – Birth of Caesar (Julius? Augustus?)

NasceturpulchraTroianusorigine Caesar,

imperiumOceano, famam qui terminetastris,

Iulius, a magnodemissumnomenIulo.


accipiessecura; vocabitur hic quoquevotis.


  • Caesar at end – most important spot
  • Interlocked – pulchraTrioanusorigine Caesar (Romans and Trojans joined to create a hero)
  • imperium…astris – placement – emphasis on extent of his (which his?) power will reach to the heavens
jupiter s prophetic response pax augusta the golden age
Jupiter’s prophetic response – Pax Augusta & the Golden Age


cana Fides, et Vesta, Remo cum fratreQuirinus

iuradabunt; diraeferro et compagibusartis

claudentur Belli portae; Furor impiusintus

saevasedens super arma et centum vinctusaënis

post tergumnodisfremethorridus ore cruento.”


  • Interlocked - asperapisitissaeculabellis (I.291)

– complex atrocities of war will be set aside

  • Fides/Vesta – honor and sanctity of Roman home
  • Closing of the gates of war, Janus
mercury s mission to earth
Mercury’s mission to Earth
  • Jupiter sends Mercury to Carthage to ensure that Dido will treat Trojans kindly
  • Mercury acts as the narrative agent to change the scene from heaven back to earth

Haecait et Maia genitumdemittitab alto,

utterraeutque novae pateantKarthaginisarces

hospitioTeucris, ne fatinescia Dido


  • Anaphora (ut…ut)
  • Dido at end of line – casual mention of her
    • Dido must not frustrate, through mere human ignorance, the will of Jupiter
mercury s mission to earth1
Mercury’s mission to Earth

finibusarceret. Volatille per aëra magnum

remigio alarum ac Libyaecitusadstititoris.

Et iamiussafacit, ponuntqueferociaPoeni

corda volente deo; in primisreginaquietum

accipit in Teucrosanimummentemquebenignam.


  • I.303-304 –
    • hyberbaton - quietumanimum
    • chiasmus – quietumanimummentumquebenignam
    • alliteration – m reinforces spirit/mind theme