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Recent Developments in Public Agricultural Research in Ghana. By Kathleen Flaherty, George Owusu Essegbey and Roland Asare. Outline of Presentation. Background Objectives of Study Methodology and Scope Main Agric Research Institute Institutional Structure and Public Agric R&D

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recent developments in public agricultural research in ghana

Recent Developments in Public Agricultural Research in Ghana

By Kathleen Flaherty, George Owusu Essegbey and

Roland Asare

outline of presentation

Outline of Presentation


Objectives of Study

Methodology and Scope

Main Agric Research Institute

Institutional Structure and Public Agric R&D

Researcher Staff Qualification

Public Agric R&D Spending

Research Funding

Full Time Equivalent


background of the study
Background of the Study
  • Largest sector 33.6% of GDP in 2008.
  • Earnings US$1.999 billion in 2008 from US$1.549 billion in 2007.
  • Agricultural sector growth from 2.7% in 2007 to 5.1% in 2008.
  • National Vision- Middle income status.
  • The need for R&D
objectives of the study
Objectives of the Study
  • To make available internationally comparable information on agricultural research capacity, investments and institutional changes.
  • To improve the efficiency and impact of agric R&D systems.
  • Assist policymakers and donors in making informed decisions on funding and operation of public and private agric agencies.
  • Enhance productivity growth of the agricultural sector.
methodology and scope
Methodology and Scope
  • Structured questionnaire to collect both qualitative and quantitative data.
  • Target institutions: 9 CSIR institutes, 15 departments Public Universities, 3 Governmental Agric Agencies.
  • 29 questionnaires administered.
  • Response Rate of 72%(21 Returned)
methodology and scope1
Methodology and Scope
  • In addition to survey data was collected from websites and annual reports.
  • Data collected 2001 to 2008.
  • Indicators covered were Agriculture human resource, financial resources, thematic and emerging critical research theme.
main agric research institutes in ghana
Main Agric Research Institutes in Ghana

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)

Other Non CSIR Government Agencies

  • Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG)
  • Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute (BNARI)

c) Marine Fisheries Research Division (MFRD)

d) Agric Dept/ Faculty of Public Universities in Ghana.

institutional structure and public agricultural r d


  • MOFA is responsible for overall Agric policy formulation in the country (incl. R&D).
  • Strong connections exist between MEST and MOFA. Representatives from MOFA serve on boards of CSIR, BNARI, CRIG and Higher Educational Institution.
  • MOFA Supports Agric R&D activities in all the agencies despite falling under different ministry.





findings research staff qualification1
Findings: Research Staff Qualification
  • There has been a slight increase in the number of Agric researchers over the period.
  • Majority of Agric Research staff were trained to the postgraduate level in 2008.
  • 35 and 46 %of Researchers have PhD and MSc degrees in 2008 compared with 35 and 50% respectively for 2001.
  • The number of female researchers with PhD from 8 FTEs in 2001 to 16 in 2008.
  • Of the 9 CSIR institutes in the study, 29 and 48% of researchers had PhD and MSc respectively in 2008, though there are variation among the institutes.
  • BNARI and CRIG have a higher share of PhD researchers of 44 and 46% respectively.
  • 52% of Universities FTE researchers have PhD and 37 percent have MSc in 2008.
  • Majority of Technicians had diploma and few with BSc degree in 2008.
findings training initiatives
Findings: Training Initiatives
  • World Bank AgSSIP has sponsored 17 and 15 CSIR scientists to obtain Agric related PhD and MSc respectively within 2001-2007.
  • Dutch Government Sponsored 9 CSIR Scientists to obtain various degrees in Universities in the Netherlands.
  • Through CSIR Training initiatives, 30 staff received various degrees under different sponsorship from 2001 to 2008.
  • The training took place in Universities in Ghana, South Africa, Europe, North American and Asia.
findings full time equivalent fte
Findings: Full Time Equivalent (FTE)
  • All the 3 categories of organizations surveyed have increased their FTEs slightly from 2002 to 2008
  • Total Agricultural R&D FTE in Ghana for 2008 was 537.
  • CSIR employed the highest FTEs of 358 as compared with 323 in 2001.
  • CRIG, BNARI, and MFRD together have 76 FTEs in 2008.
  • Agric Faculties of Public Universities accounted for 103 FTEs.
  • Female researchers constitute 17 percent of total agricultural research staff in Ghana. The number at CSIR has not changed much since 2001.
  • Support Staff per researcher ratio decrease slightly from 7.5 in 2001 to 6.9 in 2008.
findings research expenditures
Findings: Research Expenditures
  • 3 components investigated; Salaries, Operating Cost, and capital cost.
  • Since 2001 75% of the agricultural R&D expenditures have been spent by the 9 Agric institutes of CSIR on salaries alone.
  • Capital and Operating cost been declining from 2001 to 2006 but there was a slight increase in 2007-2008.
  • Government directive in October 2009 to CSIR to cut down by 40% of the budget on salaries has been put on hold.
  • Donor driven projects often cover some of the capital cost.
findings research funding
Findings: Research Funding

Source of funding for CSIR

  • Government is the main financer of most Agric R&D in Ghana (mainly salaries).
  • Funds received through loans from World Bank eg. AgSSIP.
  • Donor Agencies (mainly operating and capital costs). JICA, USAID,EU,FAO etc. Been increasing over the past decade.
  • Own Sales of goods and services. Oil Palm Research Institute (OPRI) of CSIR generated 22% of 30% target of it research funding through sale of germinated oil palm seedlings. Others around 5%.
findings research funding1
Findings: Research funding

Other sources of Research Funding

  • Competitive Agric Research Grant Scheme (CARGS) which successfully funded 193 research projects.
  • AgSSIP II has been initiated to support FASDEP II part of which is to strengthen Agric research and extension.
  • West Africa Agricultural Productivity Program (WAAPP) by the world bank and coordinated by CORAF/WECARD has been supporting tubers and root research.
  • STREFund managed by CSIR
  • CRIG is partly financed by Government and also through levy on Cocoa.
  • MFRD mainly Financed by government.
  • Universities: Financed by 4 main sources, GETFund 50% for Research (FARF), Student User fees, IGF, Government,
  • Public Agric R&D investments have seen great improvement in Ghana over the period studied.
  • The benefits of this trend in Agric R&D investments cuts across all the organizations.
  • While government support mainly finance salaries of researchers, capital and operating costs are borne mainly by donor and Development agencies.
  • CSIR has not been able to meet the commercialisation target set by government.
  • High numbers of researchers nearing retirement age and the current ban on recruitment at CSIR is a major setback to Agric R&D in Ghana.
  • Transition into internal generation of income is still a major challenge.