Air Pollution Solutions. Ch. 18. How should we deal with air pollution?. Legal, economic, and technical tools can help us to clean up air pollution, but the best solution is prevention. Laws & Regulations. United States
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Air Pollution Solutions Ch. 18
How should we deal with air pollution? Legal, economic, and technical tools can help us to clean up air pollution, but the best solution is prevention.
Laws & Regulations • United States • Clean Air Acts: 1970, 1977, 1990 created regulations enforced by states & cities
Laws & Regulations • EPA • National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQ) for 6 outdoor pollutants • National emission standards for 188 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM – smaller than PM -10) Ozone (O3) Lead (Pb)
Clean Air Act 1970 • National Air Quality Standards • Statutory Deadlines for Compliance • Clean Air Act Amended in 1977 and 1990 primarily to set new goals (dates) for achieving attainment of NAAQS
EPA & Air Quality* • Primary Standard – protects human health
EPA & Air Quality • Secondary Standard – Prevent environmental and property damage
Clean Air Act Success According to EPA 6 major pollutants decreased by 54% between 1980 and 2008
Possible Economic Solutions $$ • Enabled Emissions Trading Policy • Allows power plants to buy/sell SO2 pollution rights • Can only emit certain amt of SO2 • If emit less – earn pollution credits
Clean Air Act Failure • CO2 emissions increased by 16% between 1980 - 2008
Controlling Air Pollution • Fuel efficient transportation • Scrubbers, filters on smokestacks • Controlled land disturbing activities • Removing sulfur from fuels • Lowering temp. of combustion • Reducing incomplete combustion A. Catalytic Converters
U.S. vs. Developing Nations “The air is cleaner despite the fact that we have twice as many vehicles traveling twice as many miles.” - Denis Hayes – coordinator of 1st Earth Day
U.S. vs. Developing Nations • tech + older tech + effort in env. quality = Air Pollution • Older sources of fuel (coal, biomass) contribute to air pollution • Leaded gasoline • 1999 WHO: respiratory disease = leading cause of death of children in developing nations