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Technical characteristic of package and metric bottles for prepacked products. Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products Belgrade, Republic of Serbia - June 2010. Control of packing and filling. Reasons to control Fulfillment of requirements set up for prepackages

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Technical characteristic of package and metric bottles for prepacked products

Technical characteristic of package and metric bottles for prepacked products

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products

Belgrade, Republic of Serbia - June 2010

Organised in co-operation with Serbian Chamber of Commerce


Control of packing and filling
Control of packing and filling prepacked products

Reasons to control

  • Fulfillment of requirements set up for prepackages

  • Effectiveness of production (reduction of overfilling)

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Factors of filling process
Factors of filling process prepacked products

Factors affecting process of control

  • Sort of a product

  • Price of product

  • Batch size

  • Possibility to regulate a filling line

  • Way of packing

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Selection of control system
Selection of control system prepacked products

Statistical control

  • Sampling in a certain time period

    Usually used in:

  • Lower and mean output

  • Easy regulation

  • High quality of filling process

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Selection of control system1
Selection of control system prepacked products

Statistical control

Advantages:

  • Lower acquisition costs

  • Lower requirements on service

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Selection of control system2
Selection of control system prepacked products

Statistical control

Disadvantages:

  • qualified staffis needed

  • random error can occur

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Selection of control system3
Selection of control system prepacked products

100% control

  • every single piece is control

    Can be used where:

  • The regulation is difficult

  • Filling process is problematic

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Selection of control system4
Selection of control system prepacked products

100% control

Advantages

  • Avoiding random error

  • Staff do not need to be so qualified

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Selection of control system5
Selection of control system prepacked products

100% control

Disadvantages

  • Highacquisition costs

  • Higher requirements for service

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Control system and basic terms
control system and basic terms prepacked products

Production batch

  • Usually a hourly production

    Average

  • A measure of filling process setting

    Standard deviation

  • A measure of measuring process stability

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Control system and basic terms1
control system and basic terms prepacked products

  • Warning limits

  • Action limits

  • Zone of regulation

  • Regulation interval

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Control system and basic terms2
control system and basic terms prepacked products

Warning limits

  • When reached a warning that required values can be extent is provide

    Action:

  • Higher sampling frequencyor

  • Control of filling process

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Control system and basic terms3
control system and basic terms prepacked products

Action limits

  • When reached a regulation is necessary

  • There is a exceeding limit risk

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Control system and basic terms4
control system and basic terms prepacked products

Zone of regulation

  • a zone where regulation takes place

  • this zone is determined by action limits

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Control system and basic terms5
control system and basic terms prepacked products

Regulation interval

  • interval determined by a number of pieces

  • after a number of pieces a regulation is carried out

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Control system
control system prepacked products

Influence of a product(control selection)

100% control

  • High density, adhesion

  • Inhomogenity of products

  • Regulation is difficult

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Control system1
control system prepacked products

Influence of a product(control selection)

Statistical control

  • Liquids, inadhesive materials

  • homogenous products

  • Regulation is relatively easy

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Evaluation of control process
Evaluation of control process prepacked products

Quantity evaluated

Interval statistic (pieces or minutes)

  • Daily – influence of operators

  • Monthly and annually - economics indicators

    Batch statistics

  • Depends on batch size

    Product statistics

  • Characteristic of products and process of production is taken into account

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Procedures suitability

The characteristics of filling and packing process arehighly dependent upon

  • the nature of the product which is packed

  • the type of package and

  • the way in which it is filled.

    .

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control1
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Procedures suitability

Characteristics such as the average quantity packed, and the variation of the individual packages round this average, give important indications for the quality of the process, and how it should be controlled.

.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control2
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Procedures suitability

Measurement results must be representative

  • At least once an hour the average content of the produced prepackages must bedetermined and evaluated.

  • The same applies for the number or percentage of prepackages with a content below the TU1 and TU2 limits.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control3
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Procedures suitability

Identification of variations of the production process

  • Variations in the filling process that cause repackages to fail to meet the requirements must be identified

  • In general a deviation must be detected within an hour, since every hour’s production must meet the requirements.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control4
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Procedures suitability

The measuring and sampling methods

  • A packer must draw a sample of enough items of the running production on a regular basis. The content of each item in the sample is determined.

  • Parts of this may be automated (for instance by using a checkweigher).

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control5
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Procedures suitability

Sampling Frequency

The sampling frequency depends on the deviation of the filling process and the number of adjustments, but it should beat least once an hour and after adjustment.

In certain situations (for instance bottle filling carousels that can not be

adjusted) a lower frequency might be possible.

Checks must be carried out before the prepackages are distributed.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control6
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Procedures suitability

Sample size

  • The sample size can be calculated with following formula

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control7
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control8
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control9
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Example:

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control10
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Overfill

The target quantity (nominal quantity + overfill) should be the greatest of :

  • the nominal quantity

  • TU1 + 2 x S

  • TU2 + 3,72 x S

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


System of prepackages control11
System of prepackages control prepacked products

Overfill

The target quantity (nominal quantity + overfill) should be the greatest of :

  • the nominal quantity

  • TU1 + 2 x S

  • TU2 + 3,72 x S

    If the standard deviation is larger than target quantity – TU1 the standard deviation must bemonitored.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Use of mcb in packing process
Use of MCB in packing process prepacked products

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PACKER OR IMPORTER

  • The packer or importer shall be responsible for ensuring that prepackages meet the requirements

  • The quantity of product contained in a prepackage (or packing quantity),known as the ‘actual contents', shall be measured or checked by weight orvolume on the responsibility of the packer and/or importer

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Use of mcb in packing process1
Use of MCB in packing process prepacked products

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PACKER OR IMPORTER

  • Where the actual contents are not measured, the check carried out by thepacker shall be so organized that the quantity of the contents is effectivelyensured

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Use of mcb in packing process2
Use of MCB in packing process prepacked products

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PACKER OR IMPORTER

  • In the case of products in quantities expressed in units of volume, one of several methods of meeting the measuring and checking requirements is to use, when making up the prepackage, a measuring container of the typedefined in the Directive relating thereto, filled under the conditionsprescribed in that Directive and herein

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

MCB – Measuring Container Bottle

  • Covered by Directive 75/107/EEC of 19 December 1974 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to bottles used as measuring containers

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec1
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

MCB – Measuring Container Bottle

  • MCB which bear the reversed epsilon sign “э” have to meet therequirements of the Directive.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec2
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

MCB – Measuring Container Bottle

Requirements:

a) the average volume each bottle contains and the variability of thevolume in a batch of MCB,

b) the markings on the bottles,

c) an approved mark to identify the manufacturer

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec3
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

MCB –Definition

  • bottles, of glass or other rigid and stable substance,

  • that are designed to be stoppered, and intended for storage, transport or delivery of liquids,

  • have a nominal capacity between 0.05 L and 5 L inclusive,

  • that when filled to a specified level or specified percentage of their brim capacity, can measured with sufficient accuracy.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec4
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

MCB – not covered by this definition

  • bottles made of flexible materials, such as thin plastic material,bottles that are not designed to be capped or stoppered,

  • bottles used for non-liquid products, such as thick sauces,

  • bottles with a capacity less than 50 ml or more than 5 L,

  • bottles that are not manufactured to measure with sufficient accuracy.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec5
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

MCB having „3‟ have to:

  • meet the requirements of the Directive, and

  • be subject to metrological control specified in the Annexes

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec6
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Directive on prepackages and MCB

Directive 76/211/EEC on prepackages permits using of MCB when making up prepackages, where the quantity is expressed in units of volume, when filled to the appropriate fill level.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec7
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Non „3‟ marked MCB

They do not have to meet the requirements nor be subject to metrological controls. But these cannot be used as measures for the purposes of Directive 76/211/EEC.

Free movement is not allowed under the Directive

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec8
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Free movement of MCB

No Member Sate may refuse, prohibit or restrict the marketing and use of MCB which satisfy the requirements and tests specified in the Directive for reasons of:

  • their volume,

  • the determination of their volume, or

  • the methods by which they have been checked

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec9
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Technical Requirements

The nominal capacity Vn

  • the volume which is marked on the bottle;

  • the volume which the MCB is deemed to contain when it is filled

    in the conditions of use for which it is intended‟.

    The Brim Capacity

  • the volume of liquid it contains when filled to the brim, and

    The Actual Capacity

  • the volume of liquid that contains when it is filled exactly under the conditions corresponding theoretically to the nominal capacity.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec10
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Methods of filling bottles

  • to a constant level, where liquid is introduced and the MCB is filled up tothe stated fill height, and

  • to a constant vacuity, where the MCB is filled to the brim and then aspecific quantity is removed.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec11
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

  • In order to meet the Directive 76/211/EEC

    requirements for prepackages, the maximum

    permissible errors (both positive and negative) are specified.

  • These errors relate to the differences between the nominal capacity and the actual capacity when filled as specified, at the standardtemperature of 20oC.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec12
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Maximum permissible errors

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec13
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Maximum permissible errors

  • Manufacturers cannot use systematic exploitation of tolerances

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec14
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Determination of the MCB actual capacity

  • measuring the quantity of water at 20oC which the MCB actually containswhen filled to the level theoretically corresponding to the nominal capacity

  • weighing the quantity of a liquid of known densityneeded to the fill the MCB to the required level, and determining thevolume by dividing this weight by the density

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec15
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

„3‟ mark on an MCB

  • is certifying that the bottle meets allthe requirements of the Directive

  • generally moulds increase in size as they wear, and a manufacturer needs to have a suitable system in place to ensure that the Directives accuracy requirements are met

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec16
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Competent departmentIs responsible for:

  • approving marks,

  • notifying other competent departments and the Commission of themarks that have been approved, and

  • checking that MCB comply with the provisions of the Directive– statistical check- reference method

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec17
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Control using MCB

  • The uncertainty of measurement, from both the error permitted on the MCB and the measurement of the liquid level, must be taken into account when establishing the appropriate fill height and control limits.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec18
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Control using MCB

  • Unless other means of controlling the contents are employed, MCB can only be used for monitoring content fill if they are used with a certificated template.

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec19
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

The template must bear the following inscriptions

  • identity mark,

  • identity of MCBs for which it is to be used

  • the nominal quantity being packed

  • graduations to permit the determination of fill quantity errors

  • the operational temperature of the liquid, and if that temperature is not 20 0C, a description of the liquid and the apparent thermal co-efficient of cubical expansion 24 by reference to which the template has been graduated.

  • if it is to be used over a closure a statement to that effect and the identity of the closure

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Mcb 75 107 eec20
MCB – 75/107/EEC prepacked products

Setting the target fill volume

The packer should take into account following:

  • variation in the filling process

  • variation in the MCBs, and

  • possible error in determining the fill height using the template

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products


Technical characteristic of package and metric bottles for prepacked products

Thank you for your attention prepacked products

Ivan Kříž

ČMI

ikriz@cmi.cz

www.cmi.cz

Workshop on requirements for prepackaged products