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  1. Part Two: Market Analyzing ( Chapter4-Chapter6)

  2. Marketing information system(MIS)(P.100) People,equipment,and procedures to gather , sort,analyze,evaluate,and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers.

  3. The marketing information system(P.102) Marketing managers Analysis Planning Implement Organization Control Marketing information system Developing needed information Assessing Information needs Distributing information Internal Databases Information analysis Marketing intelligence Marketing research Marketing environment Target Marketing Competitors Publics Macro-environment Markets channels forces

  4. Marketing information system (by Jerome McCarthy) Information DataDecisionResults sources analysis maker Market research Marketing models Outcomes (sales,profit, customer reactions, ect.) Internal Data sources Databases Decision Support System Marketing manager decisions External Data sources Information processing Specialists Feedback

  5. What means the “Market” in Marketing ? All of the buyers of the company. Consumer buyers Government buyers Business buyers

  6. Consumer market:(P.136) All the individuals and households who buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumption .

  7. Marketing & Other stimuli Buyer’s black box Buyer responses Model of consumer behavior(P.137) Marketing Product Price Place Promotion Others Economics Technological Political Cultural Buyer characteristics Buyer decision process Product choice Brand choice Dealer choice Purchase timing Purchase amount

  8. Cultural Culture Subculture Social class • Factors influencing consumer behavior(P.138) Social Reference groups Family Roles & status Personal Age & lifecycle stage Occupation Economic situation Lifestyle Personality& self-concept Psychological Motivation Perception Learning Beliefs & Attitudes Buyer

  9. Economic Situation 可任意支配收入(spendable income)(现实购买力) = 全部收入 - 税费 - 固定开支 - 储蓄 + 手存现金 潜在购买力 = 储蓄存款(saving) + 借贷能力(borrowing power)

  10. Lifestyle (P.146) VALS (value & lifestyle) classification Actualizers 实现者 High resources High innovation Principle oriented Status oriented Action oriented Fulfilleds 满足者 Achievers 成就者 Experiencers 体验者 Believers 向往者 Strivers 努力者 Makers 实践者 Strugglers 奋斗者 Low resources Low innovation

  11. Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Esteem needs Self- Actualization needs • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs(P.151) 自我实现需要 自尊需要 社交需要 安全需要 生理需要

  12. Stage in family life cycle Bachelor New married couples Full nest 3 (满巢3) Full nest 2 (满巢2) Full nest 1 (满巢1) Empty nest 1 Empty nest 2

  13. Consumer Buying Roles initiation Buying Decision user Influencer buyer decider

  14. Types of Buying Decision Behavior(P.154) High involvement Low involvement • Significant differences • between brands • Few differences • between brands Variety- seeking buying Behavior 变动性购买 Complex buying Behavior 复杂性购买 Dissonance reducing buying Behavior 偏好性购买 Habitual buying Behavior 习惯性购买

  15. The Buyer Decision Process(P.155) Need recognition Evaluation of alternative Post-purchase behavior Information search Purchase decision

  16. The Information Sources of Consumers Personal sources Commercial sources Public sources Experiential sources

  17. Information search process Total set Awareness set Consideration set Choice set Decision A B C D E F G A C D F G A C F A C ? 不购买 不选择 不考虑 不知晓

  18. Consumer evaluation process: Brand image Evaluation Procedure Different degrees of Importance Total product satisfaction Product attributes

  19. The factors to influence purchase decision: The attitudes of others Unexpected situational factors

  20. 宣传 媒介披露 • Post-purchase Behavior 满意 诉之法律 不宣传 诉之公众 买后 行为 机构投诉 采取行动 要求退换 不满意 个人行为 抵制购买 不采取行动 告诫他人

  21. Adoption • Stages In The Adoption Process:(P.160) AIETA(爱它公式) Trial Evaluation Interest Awareness

  22. Time of adoption of innovations(P.160) 13% Early adopters 34% Early majority 34% Late majority 2% Innovation 16% Laggards

  23. Complexity (复杂性) • Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption(P.161) Compatibility (匹配性) Divisibility (可分性) Adoption Relative Advantage (优越性) Communi- Cability (传播性)

  24. Characteristics of Business Markets • MARKETING STRUCTURE & DEMAND • Business markets contain fewer but larger buyers. • Business customers are more geographically concentrated. • Business buyer demand is derived from final consumer demand. • Demand in many business markets is more inelastic--not affected as much in the short run by price changes. • Demand in business market fluctuates more and more quickly.

  25. NATURE OF THE BUYING UNIT • Business purchases involve more buyers; • Business buying involve a more professional purchasing effort. • TYPE OF DECISIONS & DECISION PROCESS • Business buyers usually face more complex buying decisions; • The business buying process is more formalized . • In business buying,,buyers and sellers work more closely together and build close long - run relationships.

  26. OTHER CHARACTERISTICS • Business buyers often buy directly from producers rather than through retailers and wholesalers; • Business buyers often practice reciprocity ,buying from suppliers who also buy from them. • Business buyers more often lease equipment rather than buying it outright .