from : The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, 1 st edition(1986), 2 nd edition(1997). 英语科技论文 语法和修辞（表达）概要. Email: [email protected] Tel: 0431-85262284. 1 什么是 dangling modifiers （垂悬修饰）？ dangling phrases （垂悬短语） 2 如何对英语句子进行扩展？ 3 在什么情况下使 which 与先行词分离？. 一点说明
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dangling phrases （垂悬短语）
Effective Communication of Scientific Information 3rd Edition .
edited by Anne Coghill and Lorrin Garson, Oxford University Press, New York, 2006
1 Subject-Verb Agreements
4 Awkward Omissions of Verbs and
例1 Application of this technique to studies on phytoplankton biomass and its environments are described.
[说明] The subject is “application”,
which is singular.
Application of this technique to … is
the experimental conditions and the results是并列的，与of 构成介词短语作定语，故谓语动词用“is made”。
are described in detail in this paper. 还是
is described in detail in this paper.
此句中的主语为the experimental condition and the result, 为并列主语，故谓语用are described.
例4 Growth and isolation of M13 virus was
例5 The name and address of each
contributor is given on the title page.
例6 Research and developmentis attracting
a growing number of young scientists.
例7 Application or useswere noted.
Uses or applicationwas noted.
例8 The appropriate metal ion concentration
or the rate constantswere used.
The rate constants or appropriate metal
ion concentrationwas used.
not only…but also
例9 Either ethylene chlorohydrin or
bromohydrinis treated with strong
alkali to give ethylene oxide
(与 bromohydrin 一致).
例11 Not only CS2 but also CuSO4 and AgClwere purified before the use
(与CuSO4 and AgCl一致)
例12 There wasa professor and several students
in the library.
There wereseveral students and a professor
in the library.
contents majority range
couple number series
dozen pair variety
[说明] Refers to the series as a unit.
例14 A series of compounds were tested.
[说明] Refers to each compound.
the largest to date. (Refers to the number as
A number of metal amides weresynthesized.
(Refers to each amide.)
例16 The series of compounds was prepared to
test the hypothesis. (Refers to the series as
A series of compounds were tested. (Refers to
→ A series of low molecular weight phenolphthalein epoxy resins ( Mn＝500-700) heve been prepared from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin using K2CO3(Na2CO3)/H2O as catalysts instead of NaOH/H2O.
An average of 100 kinds of reagents were in regular supply from the company each year.
The average of a series of valuesis obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the number of values.
（= The average of a series of values is obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the measurement times.）
例18 Experimental data that we obtained are
compared with previously reported results.
[说明] Refers to the data as individual results.
例19 After the data aredistributed, we can meet
to discuss them.
→ After the data isdistributed, we can meet
to discuss it.
[说明] Refers to the whole collection of data
as one unit.
例20 The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of diluent
→ The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of
diluent was added.
→ Five grams of NaCLwas added to
→ Three weeksis needed to complete
→None of the samples were soluble.
[说明] Refers to individuals.
例24 This group of workers are well aware
of their responsibilities.
→ This group of workers is well aware
of its responsibilities.
[说明] Refers to the group as a unit.
例25 Extensive data on the thermodynamical properties of the elements are available.
例26 The IR absorption spectraprovide significant information regarding functional groups.
discipline are usually singular.
Mechanics involves the application of Newton’s three
laws of motion.
The kinetics of electron transfer to and from
photogenerated radicals was examined by laser flash
The thermodynamics is governed by the positions of the
valence and conduction bands.
例27 Each flask and each holder was sterilized before use.
例28 Each student and all of the professors
implicit; such cases take a singular verb.
例29 Each name and address is entered into
• Those that take a singular verb are “each”, “either”, “neither”, “no one”, “every one”, “anyone”, “someone”, “everyone”, “anybody”, “somebody”, and “ everybody”.
例 31 Neitherdisrupts the cell membrane.
例 32 Regarding compounds 1-10, every one
reacts with the control agent.
例 33 Someonemeasures the volume every day.
“few”, “both”, “’and “many”.
例34Severalwere evaluated for their effects on
例35Fewdisrupt the cell membrane.
例36Regarding compounds 1 and 2, both
react with the control agent.
例37Manywere chosen to be part of the
例38Some of the moneywas stolen.
例39 Some of the bookswere lost.
例40Not all the disksare here; somewere lost.
例41One‐third of the precipitatewas
例42 One‐fourth of the electronsare
例43The remainder of the compounds
are yet to be described.
Most of （plenty of , a lot of）+ 不可数名词
Most of the better-known organic solventsare all suitable for these tests.
There isplenty of distilled water in the bottle.(其中的 water是不可数名词。)
There isplenty of food.
There areplenty of apples.
Is there a lot of support for the idea?
There area lot of tourists here.
例44 The preparation and structuredetermination of these three compounds are the topic of paper.
例45The topic of this paper is the preparation and structure determination of these three compounds.
When a clause in a compound sentence is restrictive, the clause is necessary to the sense of the sentence, the sentence would become pointless without the clause. Restrictive clauses are best introduced by “that”, not “which”.
→ It was necessary to fined a blocking group that would react with the amino group but not with the hydroxyl.
Nonrestrictive phrase and clause are set off by commas.
Prize in 1961, elucidated the biochemical
pathways in photosynthesis.
例49 Here, the Total signal,which is the analog of standard DSC, makes it very hard to find the polymer Tg.
也称垂悬短语 (Dangling phrases)
• One form of a dangling modifier is a verbal phrase that not refer clearly and logically to another word or phrase in the sentence.
Walking across the field, we saw a plane fly past.
(= As we were walking …, we saw …)
此句中的 splitting the atom 为现在分词短语，其逻辑主语应与句子主语一致，故需改成
→ Splitting the atom, Seaborg discovered
many new elements.
→ Upon Splitting the atom, many new
elements were discovered by Seaborg.
→ Upon Splitting the atom, Seaborg
discovered many new elements.
the experiments were discontinued.
→ When confronted with these limitations,
we discontinued the experiments.
→ In light of these limitations,
the experiments were discontinued.
→Understanding the effect of substituents on the parent molecules, we could assign the ortho hydrogens to the high-frequency peak.
partition function can be evaluated.
→ the partition function can be evaluated
by using the procedure described previously.
→ Using the procedure described previously,
we can evaluate the partition function.
in light of …,
by using …
短语 based on 在句中修饰一个名词或代名词，通常该短语紧跟被修饰的名词或代名词之后。应以 “On the basis of ” 开头的短语去修饰一个动词。即一个句子可以On the basis of 开头，而不是以Based on开头。
frequency shifts, changes in the
inter‐ring separation were calculated.
→ On the basis of resonance enhancement
and frequency shifts, changes in
the inter‐ring separation were
例57 Figure 8 shows the analysis of a drug delivery system based on amorphous, biodegradable polymer microspheres.
“Due to” 意思是 “attributable to” （归因于）; 用它只是去修饰一个名词或代名词，在句中直接将其前置；或在动词 “to be” 的某种形式之后 。
→ Delays due toequipment failure were
→ The delays were due to equipment
a. 悬垂分词短语 (Dangling participle phrases)
Having reviewed the technical report, several mistakes were found in it.
→ Having reviewed the technical report,
we found several mistakes in it.
→ On the basis of the biological and
geographical characters, lakes in China
can be divided into five major groups.
→ Lakes in China can be divided into five
major groups according to their biological
and geographical characters.
(Dangling infinitive phrases)
In order to realize sustainable development of society, it needs to consider the protected area construction as an important component of regional developmental planning and …
→ In order to realize sustainable development of society, we should consider the construction of protected area as an important component of regional developmental planning and …
(Dangling preposition phrases)
After removing the outmost leaves, the material
was rubbed with 70% ethanol for surface
→ The materials were cleansed with 70% ethanol
for surface sterilization, after their outmost
leaves were removed.
(4)Absolute constructions are words, phrases, or clauses that are grammatically unconnected with the rest of the sentence in which they appear. They are sometimes called “sentence modifiers” because they qualify the rest of the sentence. They may occur anywhere in the sentence, and they are always set off by commas. They are not dangling modifiers.
例59 Contrary to the excited‐state situation,
metal–bonding interactions in the ground
states are weak.
considering the lack of available data.
例61 judging from the spectral changes, exhaustive
photolysis of compound 4 had occurred.
例62 The conformations about the Re–Re bond,
in addition, are different for all three
例63 Assuming that distance d is induced by the
norm, M is a symmetrical and positively
例64 Taking this value as an upper limit, the two
shortest distances are sometimes too long
for incipient hydrogen bonds.
used as a sentence modifier.
例65 The compound is stable in air, as we
concluded from the experiment evidence.
例66 The Mo 5s orbitals, as expected, interact
strongly with the ligands.
（7）An introductory infinitive or infinitive
phrase may be a sentence modifier.
例67 To prepare compound 2, the method of
Garner was followed.
Be sure that each subject in a compound sentence has the proper verbs and auxiliary verbs.
例68 The eluant was added to the column, and
the samples collected in 10-mL increments.
→ The eluant was added to the column, and
the sampleswere collected in 10-mL
以 … and … 连接的两个单数主语
The series (to be) …视为整体，谓语
A series of …视为分别的，谓语用复数
… that …
•由On the basis of …开头 ,
不是 Based on
• due to 后跟名词或代名词，
或(to be) due to
•数学论文，以assuming, taking 开头
Spare the reader the trouble of guessing what you mean!
Complaint from an Editor:
“I refuse to spend time trying to understand what the author is trying to say. They cannot expect us to correct a poorly written manuscript. If there are more than 6 grammatical errors in the abstract, then I do not waste my time reading the rest. ”
Clarity, objectivity, accuracy, brevity
Keep records in English during research.
Direct and short sentences are preferred!
（4) 由which, that, where 引出的从句
(10) 通常不应将诸如“different from”, “similar to”,
“identical to”, “identical with” 等惯用语拆开
“as compared with”,以及单词“versus”引出的
(12) 科学论文，不用 wasn’t 之类的缩写形式
(14) 正斜体 缩写
例 As can be seen from Fig.1, growth is
As shown in Fig.1 …
→ Growth is rapid (Fig.1).
→ Fig.1 shows that growth is rapid.
→ Fig.1 shows …
by meansof the third peak area in DSC curve.
→ The molar enthalpy of decomposition was determined to be 62.38 kJ/mol from (or by) the third peak area in DSC curve.
a number of = several, some
at a temperature of at
at some future time later
at the present time (moment) now
a very limited number of few
by means of by or with
during the time that while
for a period of for
for the reason that because or since
from the standpoint of according to
greater (or higher) number of more
if conditions are such that if
compared with A, B was bigger
B was bigger
considerable number (or proportion) many or most
in a careless manner carelessly
in a considerable number of cases often
in a similar manner similarly
in all cases always, all
in any case anyhow
in consequence of this fact therefore
in few cases sometimes, rarely,
in many cases chemists are …
many chemists are …
in order to to
in terms of in
in the case of sodium with sodium
in the event that if
in the near future soon
in the temperature range of
between … and … ℃
in view of the fact that since or because
large proportion of many
of great importance important
of such hardness that so hard that
on the basis of from, by, because
on the order of about
owing to the fact that since, because
a small number of a few
subsequent to after
a sufficient number of enough
with reference to about
prior to before
It appears that … Apparently …
It is interesting to note that … Interestingly …
It was in 1977 that … In 1977 …
It is clear that … Clearly …
It is our conclusion that … We conclude that …
It may be said that … Perhaps …,
It is often the case that … Often …
It is possible that the cause is …
The cause may be …
It is the aim of the present investigation
to provide …
→ This investigation is aimed
to providing …
As already stated
It has been found that
It has long been known that
It is interesting to note that
It is worth mentioning at this point
It may be said that
It was demonstrated that
It is a procedure that is often used.
→ This procedure is often used.
There are seven steps that must be completed.
→ Seven steps must be completed.
This is a problem that is…
→ This problem is…
These results are preliminary in nature.
→ These results are preliminary.
a number of → many, several
a small number of → a few
are in agreement → agree
are found to be → are
are known to be → are
at present → now
at the present time → now
by means of → by
despite the fact that → although
due to the fact that → because
during that time → while
fewer in number → fewer
for the reason that → because
has been shown to be → is
in color, e.g., red in color → just state the
color, e.g., red
in consequence of this fact → therefore,
in length → long
in order to → to
in shape, e.g., round in shape → just state the
shape, e.g., round
in size, e.g., small in size → just state the
size, e.g., small
in spite of the fact that → although
in the near future → soon
in view of the fact that → because
is known to be → is
it appears that → apparently
it is clear that → clearly
it is likely that → likely
it is possible that → possibly
of great importance → important
on the order of → about
owing to the fact that → because
prior to → before
reported in the literature → reported
subsequent to → after
He uses an instrument which is called a spectroscope.
→ He uses an instrument called a spectroscope
例 The man who lectures on Thursday is an
expert in dynamics.
→ The man lecturing on Thursday is an
expert in dynamics.
Air which is compressed can be used for
→ Air compressed can be used for several
→ Compressed air can be used for several
Malaysia is a country which produces rubber.
Malaysia is a country producing rubber.
Malaysia is a rubber- producing country.
Airport is a place at which special
attention is paid to the weather.
→ Airport is a place where special
attention is paid to the weather.
A fuse box is a device by means of which excessive loads are avoided.
→ A fuse box is a device whereby excessive load are avoided.
A general term covering a group of related techniques whereby the dependence of the parameters of any physical property of a substance on temperature is measured.
Venus is a planet of which the surface temperature is thought to be at least 200 ℃.
→ Venus is a planet whose surface temperature
is thought to be at least 200 ℃.
Laboratories are rooms inwhich experiments are conducted.
Here is a list of experiments which will be/ should be/ have been done this year.（这里是今年要做的/ 必须做的/ 已做过的实验明细表。)
greater than 50% notin excess of 50%
more than 100 samples notover 100 samples
more than 25mg notin excess of 25mg,
Such fractions are called as non-freezing water.
Such fractions are referred to as freezing bound
This water is designated as freezing water.
Conflicting data have been presented in literature concerning the compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride)-PVC- and poly(methyl methacrylate)-PMMA. Thus, Schurer et al reported PVC/ PMMA to be miscible only in blends having a PVC content greater than mass fraction of 60 %, whereas Rozinska et al claimed PVC/ PMMA to be immiscible. On the other hand, Parmer et al asserted PVC/PMMA to be miscible over the whole range of composition showing a single glass transition, Tg, in the second DSC heating rate traces. Miscibility of PVC/PMMA has also been confirmed by Albert et al by non-radiative energy transfer and NMR.
例1 absorbed by, adsorbed on
…adsorbed on the surface of silver iodine.
water was absorbed by the sponge.
Although high precision was achieved, accuracy was low.（虽然达到高精密度，但准确度低。）
“Actually, the reaction rates by employing some other methods were considerably slower, …”
calibrate的名词形式是calibration（校准），在规定条件下为确定测量仪器或测量系统的示值与被测量相对应的已知值之间关系的一组操作。可以用校准的结果评定测量仪器、测量系统的示值误差，或给任意标尺上的标记赋值；有时把校准的结果表示为校正因子或取校正曲线形式的一系列校正因子。可按上述的校正对测量结果做调整（adjust）。例如：The results of the calibration permitted us to adjust the final result.（校准的结果允许我们去调整最终结果。）
common（普通的，共同的）,α-Alumina monohydrate is a common component of many bauxites.（α-氧化铝单水合物是许多铝土矿的共同成分。）
general（一般的），One of the best and most general methods for preparing ketones in the aromatic series is the Friedel-Craft reaction.（制备芳酮类化合物一般最好的方法之一是Friedel-Craft反应。）
Heavy water differs somewhat from ordinary water in certain physical properties.（重水在某些物理性质方面与普通的水有所不同。）
Usual（常规的），Under these conditions the end-point of titration could be found accurately in the usual way.（在这种条件下，按常规的办法可以精确发现滴定终点。）
a common method 普通的方法
a general method 一般的方法
a usual method 常规的方法
a conventional method 传统的方法
by means of与by, using, by using同义，表示利用某种方法（手段，诸如IR, DSC, NMR, X射线衍射等）开展研究、观测；
in terms of 通常用在采用某种理论（说法）、参数来解释实验结果。
The thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of PES/PPS blends have been investigated by means of DSC and DMA.
Sometimes, we have to study the miscibility of polymer blends bymeans of a combination of two or more methods in order to confirm the experimental results.
→ The relationship between glass temperature ( Tg )
and copolymer compositions was interpreted
in terms of Fox equation.
→ … in terms of the Malek method.
thermogram的一种解释是，住院病人，例行查房，体温的逐日记录。因此，以英国学者为主的热分析名词委员会主张称热分析的记录为“曲线”，而不称“热谱”。如DTA curve（DTA曲线），DSC curve（DSC曲线）。
derivative（微商），表示某物理量P对温度T或时间t的微商，dP/dT (或dP/dt ), 如derivative thermogravimetry（微商热重法）
differential（差，差示），如differential scanning calorimetry（差示扫描量热法）。
“测量” （measurement）是指对某物理量（如空间、时间、速度、功能等的有关数值）进行测试的过程，对地形、地貌的测绘也称测量，可称测量目的、测量原理、测量方法、测量条件、测量步骤等；而“测定” （determination）是更着眼于测试的结果，取得待测的某种参数，如比定压热容cp 的测定、动力学参数的测定、熔点测定、玻璃化温度的测定、纯度测定等。这种区别从如下英文的表述中也可以明显看出。
The results are clearly different.
We tried various（或several different）methods.（我们试过各种方法。）
The effect of varying the condition was …
如：mass of the sample（试样质量，或简称试样量），而不称sample weight（试样重量）。重量在本质上与力是相同的，即是质量与因重力而产生的加速度的乘积。
usually, often, sometimes 依次为
It was usually observed that …
It was often observed that …
It was sometimes observed that …
certified reference material有证参样（或称有证标准物质）。
standard material用于检定仪器测量准确度的物质；certified reference material用一种或多种技术上正确的方法，鉴定了其特性值、具有可溯源性并附有鉴定机构所发给的证书或其他文件的标准物质。
（4) 由which, that, where 引出的从句
(10) 通常不应将诸如“different from”,
“similar to”,“identical to”, “identical with”等惯用语
(11) 由“relative to”,“as compared to”，
“as compared with”，以及单词“versus”引出的
(14) 正斜体 缩写
The solutionheatedto boiling.
The spectrawere recorded.
Jonesreviewedthe literature and gathered much
of this information.
The structurewas determinedby neutron
Absolute rate constants for a wide variety of
Hyperbranched compoundsare macromolecular
compounds that contain a branching point in
each structural repeat unit.
The characteristics of the voltammetric curve
indicate that electron transfer and breaking of
the carbon-iodine bondare concerted.
was confirmedby thermal analysis technique,
i.e., theyhada high glass transition temperature
and decomposition temperature.
In this paper we report the synthesis of RFC containing barium ferrite according to a specific method and its evaluation of dielectric and mechanical properties.
The probable mode of evolution is discussed.
In the past decade public attention more and more focused on the potential applications of renewable resources (for example as building materials, Sobral 1990)(90).
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
was kindly supplied by FIAT (Italy).
The HDPE was blended with the LDPE, in the
molten state at high temperature (200℃),
using a Brabender blender,equipped with
Tensile strength decreaseswith the addition of ferrites. This is due to the poor interfacial adhesion between
the ferrite filler and nature rubber.
We conclude that the principle of the
test system allow increased safety and
accuracy in hospital drug handling.
When photosynthesis can be carried out
artificially on a large scale,we shall
be able to set up factories
to mass-produce food.
In the coming years,scientistswill try
tocollect signals from outer space.
from: 冯志杰 汉英科技翻译指要
We presume that a cyclase gene from S. cattleyawas cloned according to the function of the gene products.
→According to the function of the gene products,
we may come to the conclusion that a cyclase
gene from S. cattleyahas been cloned.
The fact that such processes are under strict
stereoelectronic control is demonstrated by our
work in this area.
→ Our work in this area demonstrates that such
processes are under strict stereoelectronic
studies because his physical condition
becomes worse and worse.
→ He had to discontinue his undergraduate studies because his physical condition became worse and worse.
→ Agricultural production has increased significantly since 1979 owing to the economical reforms in rural China.
下划线部分（,--ed …, ）是 paper 的后置定语
Since centrosome is chemically complex
cellular structure and autoimmune
antiserum is polyclonal, further
investigation was made by using one of
the antisera against centrosome.
I lived where there are mountains and
The fact that such processes are under strict
stereoelectronic controlis demonstrated
by our work in this area.
→ Our work in this areademonstratesthat
such processes are under strict
• 现在时 客观真理
• 现在完成时 延续性
• 过去时 局限性
Jones reported xyz, but we found …
we present here a detailed study …
Our recent work demonstrated …
To determine the effects of structure on
photophysics, we …
We can see
Matter is anything having mass and
While the Indian government were increasing grain yields, they were improving post harvest processing and storage of agro-products.
→While increasing grain yields, the Indian government were improving post harvest processing and storage of agro-products.
We pain so much attention to R line selection that we achieved the hybrid rice of high grain quality.
→ We pain so much attention to R line selection as to achieve the hybrid rice of high grain quality.
When the leaves at different parts of the stalks were picked according to the standard, the tissues were loose, most of tomenta fell off.
→ When the leaves at different parts of the stalks were picked according to the standard, the tissues were loose with most of tomenta felling off.
This reactionis not uncommon
→This reaction is common
This reaction is not rare
→This reaction occurs about 40% of the time
This transitionwas not unexpected
→This transition was expected
→We know that such transitions were possible
→ This strategy is frequently used
This strategy is occasionally used
This resultis not unlikelyto occur
→ This result is likely to occur
This result is possible
1)通过 which 进行双扩展
The change of heat of fusion of polyethylene as a function of the specific volumewhich the sample has at room temperature, and which is related to the crystallinity through Eq.(5) in Chapter IVis shown in Fig.IV 12.
先行词A known specimen which …,
and which …
In the case of cold crystallization it is suggested that by reason of somewhat rigid backbone chains in these polymers, there will be some local ordersuch as parallel chains or nematic domains, originating during quenching the melt and frozen in the glassy state, which favors subsequent crystallization.
…local ordersuch as …, originating …,
One of the difficulties in illustrating the problems of standard DSC is that there are no polymer standards for crystallinity.
As discussed in the initial overview of this series on MDSC, Modulated DSC differs from standard DSC in that it applies two simultaneous heating rates to sample.
As mentioned in initial paper, there are three general misunderstandings associated with technique of MDSC.
As previously stated, the same instrument is used to run both DSC and MDSC experiments.
As has been stated many times, it is important to use the same experimental conditions when comparing samples.
This paper outlines the basis for the Modulated DSC technique and shows its value in solving analytical problems that cannot be readily tackled by traditional DSC.
In fact it only requires that there be a periodic change in heating rate.
The data (Figure 6) might incorrectly lead to the conclusion thatthe material was only PET.
This “baseline” region in the data is where there is no transition occurring and heat flow signal is due only to the heat capacity of the sample.
That’s what (= the thing which) I should like to know. (这正是我想知道的。)
Thermal decompositionkinetics of the complexes of light rare earth bromides with alanine by DSC method
→ DSC study on kineticsof thermaldecomposition for the complexes of light rare earth bromides with alanine
In the form of extended helical chain, the junction zones are linked.
→ The junction zones are linked in the form of
extended helical chain.
Fox equation interprets the relationship between glass temperature (Tg) and copolymer compositions.
→ The relationshipbetween glass temperature
(Tg) and copolymer compositions was
interpreted in terms of Fox equation.
Examine the contents of the tube in which the
liquid have been collected.
In many cases, authors are expected to publish complete details (not necessarily in the same journal ) after their communications have been published.
• under condition
… under non-isothermal condition
• at heating/ cooling rate
The exothermic crystallization peaks were recorded at different cooling rates ranging from 2.5--40℃/min under a nitrogen atmosphere.
The melting range of this polymer was 138～163℃, and the heat of fusion was 24 cal/g, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry with a scan speed of 8℃/min.
… subsequently the specimens were cooled down, and crystallization thermograms were recorded at scan speed of 0.5～32℃/min with a differential scanning calorimeter manufactured by Perkin-Elmer (DSC model 1 B).
With 使用仪器differential scanning calorimeter
• in 按（升、降温）模式
The following equation is valid for the heat flow rate absorbed by the sample (without reference sample) in (quasi-) steady heating mode.
Peak area calibration can be performed in two ways.
The amorphous subsystem is linked to the equilibrium melt, followed by extrapolation into the nonequilibrium, supercooled melt to the glass , as described in Section V.A.1 and Fig 2.
… is valid for… and (is valid) for…
endothermic peak: A peak in which the energy supplied to the test specimen is greater than the energy corresponding to the virtual baseline.
( from: ISO 11357—1)
to 后的the test specimen 与 to the virtual baseline 不能对等。
建议英文修改成：“…than the energy in comparison with maintaining the virtual baseline.”
ecological adjustment of
→ecological adjustment by groundwater
→the impending earthquake prediction
by some Chinese scientists
→ about 500 times in every year
fluid inclusions of early stage
→ fluid inclusions at early stage
in the depth of 800 m
→ at the depth of 800 m
It is shown on/by Fig.5.
→ It is shown in Fig.5.
→ The forest fire in the Da Hinggan Ling Mountains occurred during May 13-22, 1998.
→ Hydrogen can enter the basin through deep faults.
When chrysotiles acton body fluid …
→ When chrysotiles act with body fluid …
the difference of geochemical property
→the difference in geochemical
the relationship of human and nature
→ the relationship between human and
→ A meteorite impacted on the Pacific
→ The research ongeological fluids
thermoluminescence response of radiation
→ thermoluminescence response to
with those of feldspar.
→ The growth rules of quartz are
similar to those of feldspar.
the concepts of Magoon and Dow (1994)
→ the concepts proposed by Magoon and Dow
two ideas ofrelating the infrared radiation mechanism
→ two ideas relating to the infrared
the earthquake with magnitude of > 6.5
→ the earthquake with magnitude
more than 6.5
→ The random variable xisof the power-function distribution.
The results show in follows.
As for this, a lot of oil reservoirs
→ The results show as follows.
→ The results show in the following.
→ As a result, a lot of oil reservoirs
Only the largest groupwas injected with the test compound. ( Meaning: no other group)
The largest group wasonly injected with the test compound. ( not given the compound in any other way)
The largest group was injected withonly the test compound. ( no other compound )
“identical with” 等惯用语拆开
The complex shows a significantlydifferentNMR
signal from that of compound 1.
→The complex shows an NMR signal significantly
different fromthat of compound 1.
→Compound 5 does not catalyze hydrogenation under the conditionssimilar to those for compound 6.
The single crystals are all similar in structure to
the crystals of compound 7.
Solution A is identical in appearance with
“as compared to”，
“as compared with”，
以及单词 “versus” 引出的相比较的第二成分，与第一成分在语法结构上必须是平行的。
The greater acidity ofnitric acidrelative tonitrous acidis due to the initial state charge distribution in the molecules.
The behavior is analogous to the reduced Witting‐like reactivity inthiolateversusphenoxide complexes.
The identificationwasn’tconfirmed by mass
→ The identificationwas notconfirmed by mass
Our goal was to confirm the presence of the alkaloid in the leavesand/orroots.
→ Our goal was to confirm the presenceof the alkaloid in the leavesandroots.
→ Our goal was to confirm the presence of the alkaloid in either the leavesorthe roots.
→ Our goal was to confirm the presenceof the alkaloid in the leaves, the roots, or both.
• 应慎用斜体强调某一词或短语，不可对一 长段话使用斜体；
•文章中首次出现的新引进的术语，可使用斜 体 如：
In an outer-sphere transfer, an electron moves from reductant to oxidant with no chemical alteration of the primary coordination spheres.
I read articles on that new chiral compound in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
N-乙烯基咪唑 cis- trans-
ca. e.g. at al. etc. i.e. in situ vs …
of Introduction to Instrumental Analysis
This book has the following characteristics:
• Easy to understand, Concise and comprehensive
This book not states profound theory and in a pithy style, avoiding tedious mathematical derivation.
In view of practical, each chapter provides the general principles and also experimental procedure, expression of results, typical examples and possible problems in practical measurements.
This book covers most all analytical methods of instruments in not long space, such as:
Infrared spectrometry (IR)
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)
Mass spectroscopy (MS)
Gas chromatography (GC)
x-ray diffraction analysis
• A lot of common experimental data of typical compounds
In addition, there are 22 translation notes, making the meaning of some concepts and definition more clear and definite.
at. wt atomic weight
bp boiling point
CP chemical pure
Ed., Eds. Editor, Editors
e.g. for example
etc. and so forth
fp freezing point
i.e. that is
mp melting point
Mr relative molecular mass
NMR nuclear molecular resonance
p, pp page, pages
p.m. after noon
ref(s) reference(s)[with number(s)]
sp vol specific volume
U.K. United Kingdom
U.S. United States
USP United States Pharmacopeia
v/v volume per volume
w/v weight per volume
w/w weight per weight
for example 例如
e. g. 是拉丁文exempli gratia 的缩写，等同于 for example
i. e. 等同于 that is, in other words, namely
etc. 是 et cetera 的缩写，等同于and so on,
et al 是拉丁文et alii 的缩写，等同于and others,
e.g. etc. p.m. vol. et al. (计量单位除外 m, cm, km)
Fig.4, Eq(3) 等缩略结构若出现在句首，须写出全称Figure 4, Equation(3)
On August 3, 1996, we completed the second
phase of the experiment.
The final results will be available in January
Jan April July Oct
Feb May Aug Nov
March June Sept Dec
- 小写的缩写 cmc’s
- 单字母大写的缩写 O’s( Os 是osmium
- 以上、下角标结尾的缩写 Tg’s pKa’s
- 以斜体字母结尾的缩写 pK ’s
All the new compounds were characterized by elemental analysis,1H and 13C NMR, IR and MS spectra.
MS spectra = mass spectra spectra
… and MS techniques. 或 MS
类似地 TGA analysis =
thermogravimetric analysis analysis
light green, dark green (并非七基色)
This research suggests that … possible
We believe …
… might be due to ( may be due to;
can be due to )
中国科技期刊研究, 2005，16（1）：127-129 ；
Its inventor and practitioner is Robert.
There wasa teacher and several students in the laboratory.
There wereseveral students and a teacher in the laboratory.
The designer or another scientist usually announces the decision.
Neither banks nor independent agenciesoffer appropriate life insurance policies.
Neither the quality nor the priceshave changed.
Neither the prices nor the qualityhas changed.
That datais reliable.
Do not form conclusion until the datahave
The purpose is to bring together several
manuscripts by active scientists and engineers
and publish them in a single issue.
（lack of unity）
The underwater scene was dark and mysterious; the willows lining the shore dipped into the water.
→ The underwater scene was dark and mysterious; above, the willows lining the shore dipped into the water.
例 If we attempt to solve the problem in this way, several difficulties are encountered. （假如用这种方法解决问题，会遇到一些困难。）
→ If we attempt to solve the problem in this way, we shall encountered several difficulties.（强调研究者的行为）
或 If the problem is to be solved in this way, several difficulties shall be encountered. （强调遇到的困难）
•时间和顺序关系 after, before, first, second, then, finally, later, meanwhile, while, whilst, in the future
例如 A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme.（在程序温度下,测量物质的物理性质与温度的关系的一类技术。）
•附加、递增关系 also, again, in addition,
•异同关系 yet, however, nevertheless,
on the contrary, likewise,
as a consequence, accordingly,
for this reason
•举例说明 for example, for instance,
in other words
•总结归纳 in conclusion, in short,
in a word,in brief,
on the whole
例 This method is rapid, inexpensive, and easily to
carry out serial determinations.
→ This method is rapid, inexpensive, and easily
applicable to serial determinations.
例 Test specimen: Specimen to be analysed which is enclosed in the test specimen crucible and placed for measurement on the sample side of symmetric specimen holder assembly.
The laboratory needed an operator. Preferably someone with intelligence and experience.
→ The laboratory needed an operator, preferably someone with intelligence and experience.
Such comments neither contribute nor detract from his reputation.
→ Such comments neither contribute to nor detract from his reputation.
TV weather maps have various symbols ,
for example, a big apostrophe means drizzle.
→ TV weather maps have various symbols; for example, a big apostrophe means drizzle.
The sensor requires little maintenance it can be place in difficult-access areas.
→ The sensor requires little maintenance, so it can be place in difficult-access areas.