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Women in Canada – 1980s & 1990s. Resignation of PM Mulroney allowed for the first ever female Prime Minister of Canada Kim Campbell was PM from June to December in 1993, she was succeeded by Jean Chretien This was another example of how women held office at all levels of government

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Women in canada 1980s 1990s
Women in Canada – 1980s & 1990s

  • Resignation of PM Mulroney allowed for the first ever female Prime Minister of Canada

    • Kim Campbell was PM from June to December in 1993, she was succeeded by Jean Chretien

  • This was another example of how women held office at all levels of government

    • Elsewhere, women’s wages were still lower than men’s

  • As most women held jobs in the health care and social work industries, they were more adversely affected by funding cuts (mentioned last day) than men

    • Private sector, females tended to lose their jobs before men

  • Cutbacks made it difficult for women to afford daycare for their children, so often they couldn’t afford to work, it was cheaper to stay at home…


The montr al massacre dec 1989
The Montréal massacre, Dec 1989

  • December 6, 1989 is a day in Canadian history that brought the issue of violence against females to the forefront for all Canadians

    • 14 female students at the Ecole Polytechnique were “systematically” targeted by a lone gunman; he walked through the school and only targeted women – he then turned the gun on himself…

      • The Montreal Massacre was the worst single-day massacre in Canadian history

  • Why did he (Marc Lepine) do it?

    • Trend of 1970s and 1980s where women had been increasingly entering non-traditional occupations and educational programs

      • A large number of women had enrolled in the Ecole Polytechnique (an engineering school)

    • Lepine, described as a moody loner, had been rejected from CAN armed forces, and was also rejected in his admission to the school where the massacre took place…


Montr al massacre ii
Montréal MASSACRE II

  • The Suicide Note…

    • “Please note that if I am committing suicide today… it is not for economic reasons… but for political reasons. For I have decidedto send Ad Patres [Latin – “to the fathers”] the feminists who have ruined my life… The feminists always have a talent for enraging me. They want to retain the advantages of being women… while trying to grab those of men…” (continued in text)

      • Also attached to this suicide note was a list of 19 prominent Quebec women in non-traditional occupations

        • Quebec’s first women firefighter and police captain

    • Lepine wrote “[These women] nearly died today. The lack of time (because I started too late) has allowed these radical feminists to survive.”


Montr al massacre iii
Montréal MASSACRE III

  • World-wide & Canadian Response:

    • People rallied all across the country, and around the world to not only commemorate the victims, but to also denounce the anti-feminist nature of the attack

      • Municipal and provincial governments declared three days of mourning. The flag atop Parliament hill flew at half-mast

      • Candlelight vigils were held around Canada, and still done so on the 6 of December to this date

    • Canadian Government declared Dec 6 National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women

      • Partly due to this horrific event, Canadians have been able to achieve reforms to sexual assault laws and gun ownership regulations in Canada.


Immigration in canada 1980s 1990s
Immigration in Canada – 1980s & 1990s

  • By the 1990s, Canada had become a truly multicultural nation

    • 1996, visible minorities made up 11% of Canada’s population

  • While people made the choice to live in Canada, they were still met with discrimination and prejudice on Canadian soil

    • Gov’t tried to curb this: 1980 human rights legislation, 1982 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guaranteed equality for all – barriers were broken down!

  • Canadian Multiculturalism Act, 1987 recognized “all Canadians as full and equal participants in Canadian Society”

    • “All citizens can keep their identities, can take pride in their ancestry, and have a sense of belonging… through multiculturalism. Canada recognizes the potential of all Canadians, encouraging them to integrate into their society, and take an active part in its social, cultural, economic, and political affairs”

      • Department of Canadian Heritage


Countries of origin
Countries of Origin

  • During the 1980s and 1990s, immigrants and refugees gravitated towards Canada’s major cities such as Toronto, Montreal, & Vancouver

    • By 2001 more than half of all Canadian immigrants came from Asia & Pacific Region

      • Previously (before 1981) immigrant groups were predominantly of European Origin (see chart page 152)


Qualifying for immigration to canada
Qualifying for immigration to Canada

  • In order to be able to immigrate into Canada, applicants must meet a certain criteria

    • They must take a test valued at 100 points – an applicant must attain a score of 67 to pass

      • Criteria based on:

        • Education

        • Fluency in English

        • Experience

        • Employment opportunities

  • For example, someone who is highly educated will go to the top of this list

    • Everyone must submit to a medical test as well

      • See chart on page 153 for example of categories for qualifying immigrants in 2001 (where they fell in the scheme of things)


Problems faced by immigrants
Problems faced by Immigrants

  • Immigrant Poverty:

    • Canadian policy is to select “newcomers who can make positive economic contributions to Canada, while also maintaining the family reunification and refugee protection programs”

      • Side-note: 35% of immigrants who arrived in the 1990s live below the poverty Statistics Canada’s low-income benchmark ($24,069)

        • In Montreal alone, this number is more than 47%; Vancouver more than 40%

  • Difficulties faced by Immigrants:

    • Most of 20th Cent. Immigration rates was in sync with Canada’s business cycle

      • Business good, unemployment down = high immigration

        • PM Mulroney changed this, allowing more people in during recession (1990), this didn’t help either side’s cause

    • Also, foreign credentials aren’t often recognized = education and qualifications doesn’t move across boarders

      • “According to Statistics Canada, 42 per cent of immigrants aged 25 to 54 are overqualified…”


Ok that s all for today
Ok, that’s all for today…

  • Please work on your worksheets…

  • If you are going to do the re-test sign up now…

    • Thursday – Lunch and/or after school

    • Friday – Lunch only

  • Questions?


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