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Chapter 5 Global Temperatures. Global Temperatures. Temperature Concepts and Measurement   Principal Temperature Controls   Earth’s Temperature Patterns  Air Temperature and the Human Body . Temperature Scales. Temperature Scales  freezing broiling Fahrenheit 32 ° F 212°F

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global temperatures
Global Temperatures
  • Temperature Concepts and Measurement  
  • Principal Temperature Controls  
  • Earth’s Temperature Patterns 
  • Air Temperature and the Human Body 
temperature scales
Temperature Scales
  • Temperature Scales 
  • freezing broiling
    • Fahrenheit 32°F 212°F
    • Celsius 0°C 100°C
    • Kelvin  273°K 373°K

Figure 5.1

principal temperature controls
Principal Temperature Controls  

1. Latitude  (affects insolation)

2. Altitude  (high altitude has greater daily range; high altitude has lower annual average)

3. Closeness to the large water body (daily and annual temperature range)

4. Ocean currents (affect temperature)

5. Cloud Cover (affect albedo)


Figure 5.5


Land–Water Heating Differences 

  • Evaporation
  • Transparency
  • Specific heat: the amount of heat required to increase 1 gram of substance by 1°C. (water has the highest specific heat than anything else on the earth).
  • Movement
  • Ocean currents and sea-surface temperatures
  • Marine vs. continental effects

Marine and Continental Climates:

San Francisco



Figure 5.13

earth s temperature patterns
Earth’s Temperature Patterns
  • January Temperature Map  
  • July Temperature Map  
  • Annual Temperature Range Map
    • Continentality : larger annual temperature range, higher continentallity
january temperatures




January Temperatures
  • Isotherms: lines of equal air temperature
  • Isotherm pattern in Northern Hemisphere:
  • Isotherms bend southward when crossing into land area (land is colder than ocean at the same latitude).
  • Large temperature gradient
  • Temperature gradient: the air temperature change over a horizontal distance.
  • 3. Air temperature over west coast is warmer than east coast (ocean versus land influence by prevailing wind)
  • 4. Coldest air temperature is over the subarctic land

Figure 5.14

july temperatures




July Temperatures
  • Northern Hemisphere isotherm pattern:
  • Isotherms bend towards north when across the land areas (land is hotter than oceans)
  • Small temperature gradient
  • West coast has lower air temperature than east coast (cold ocean current versus warm current)
  • Highest air temperature occurs over subtropical land areas

Figure 5.17

global temperature ranges difference between the highest and lowest monthly temperature
Global Temperature Ranges: difference between the highest and lowest monthly temperature

The largest occurs over subarctic land areas

Figure 5.19

air temperature and the human body
Air Temperature and the Human Body
  • Wind chill
    • Correlates cold and wind speed
  • Heat index
    • Correlates heat and humidity
wind chill table
Wind Chill Table

Higher wind speed increases chilling effect in winter

Figure FS 5.1.1

heat index table
Heat Index Table

Higher humidity increases discomfort in summer

Figure FS 5.1.2