The Critical Period Articles of Confederation & the Constitution
Overview During the Constitutional Era, the Americans made two attempts to establish a workable government based on republican principles. 1) The Articles of Confederation 2) The Constitution • When the Colonies achieved their independence, the question that everyone was asking was, “What kind of government should we have?” • Most people still referred to their stateswhen asked what country they were from. • Some people suggested that Washington become Kingof the US, but Washington refused to be seen as anothermonarch. • Few people wanted a strong National government. They did not want a government like Parliament.
The Articles of Confederation • In 1777, the Continental Congress created the ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION (which was approved in 1781) which created a Central National (or Federal) Government • The ARTICLES OF CONFEDERARTION would be the predecessor to the Constitution and the US would be governed by these for the first few years of existence.
What the AOC SAID legislative tax war representatives (to Congress) one
Problems with the AOC Size or population taxes (between the states) enforce judicial alliance • Biggest Problem: States had more power than the national government
Shays’ Rebellion “Common” (poor) Paper money stronger taxes Coin money Causes of the Revolution Boston Articles of Confederation State of MA
strong by Alexander Hamilton & James Madison
The constitutional convention Philadelphia Rhode Island 55 12 James Madison father George Washington keep Rewrite the Articles Virginia Plan
The constitution is built on compromise Two (bicameral) One (unicameral) bicameral Based on a state’s population Equal representation One house= equal One House= population House of Reps= popular vote; Senate= state gov’ts choose People have a popular vote State gov’ts choose James Madison (VA) William Patterson(NJ) It balanced the interests of big and small states, creating a strong national government with more power than the states This plan was supposed to benefit BIG states with lots of people like Virginia This plan was just like the AOC and was supposed to benefit SMALL states like NJ
The Great Compromise Roger Sherman Ben Franklin Each state got equal representation (2 people & 2 votes. Senators were chosen by state legislatures. Each state gets representationbased on its Population. The people popularly elect members of the House 9/01/1787
The 3/5 Compromise 3/5 (60%) Freedom or the right to vote 1) They worried the North would end slavery 2) Counting slaves in their population gave them more power in Congress 9/17/1787
Federalism: power to govern is divided between the national and state gov’ts
Separation of powers/checks & balances Divisions/Separation of power 3 checks & balances
elections upper lower Electoral College electors
The Bill of rights James Madison
Creates idea of “judicial review” = only the Supreme Court (national gov’t) can declare laws to be unconstitutional The Supreme Court said that states can’t tax the national gov’t because the “power to tax is the power to destroy” States cannot regulate trade between the states. Only the national gov’t can deal with interstate trade.