Crosstabs. How do we assess the relationship between two variables? (We’ll bring in more variables later.) Various ways, especially with interval-level data; one of the most common ways is with crosstabs. “Crosstab” is a contraction of “Cross Tabulation”
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Various ways, especially with interval-level data;
one of the most common ways is with crosstabs.
Also called a contingency table
A table based on two variables, where the cell
entries are the counts or percentages of cases
that fall in that row or column category.
So, also called a bivariate frequency table.
A file of about a thousand people would have data like this (except that Gender and Watching TV would be coded using numbers).
You would create the cross-tab (presumably using SPSS—these are real bears to do by hand).An example: gender & tv watching
I’ve percentaged the total row or col.
Not necessary, but often useful, and
it’s done automatically by SPSS.
I’ve used whole numbers. Nothing
about creating tables defines
accuracy level. Don’t overdo
Dv is the one we’re trying to explain.
Iv is the one used to explain the dv.
The question we are asking is: are
women more likely to watch this
particular tv program than men are?
Recode? Note small # of cases in some rows. Also, are Ind and Other different?
DKs? Delete or combine with other rows?
Don’t make meaningless combinations
just because of small N’s.
Keep in/delete “don’t knows” depending
on your reasoning about them.
For now, see Weisberg et al. reading,
You might want to look at this when
doing your data assignment.
Reformat as necessary
Provide meaningful labels
Give it a title
Show n’s, %s, not cell counts
Tell us why this hyp makes sense.
Thoughtfulness is rewarded. (Dem’s
more often voted for Gore is not that
Tell us how you operationalized your
variables, but also why.
Tell us about measurement problems.
Percentage the table properly.
Presentation as noted earlier.
(More than “yes” or “no” is required.)
Note possible alternative explanations.
Table should go on a separate page.
Use clear, straightforward prose (you
are not writing a novel).
Proper grammar; correct spelling,
punctuation, and capitalization; typo-