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Child Trafficking
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  1. Child Trafficking Chris Bradley Blaenau Gwent Social Services Emma James Barnardo’s Cymru Seraf Service Blaenau Gwent LSCB Conference 27th November

  2. Definition of ‘trafficking in children’ • December 2008 UK signs up to the: • Council of Europe’s Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. • Which defines ‘Trafficking in Children’ as: • ‘the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of person’s under 18 years of age, for the purpose of exploitation.’ ‘ • Exploitation’ includes: • ‘sexual exploitation, forced labour or services. Slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. In this connection it is immaterial whether or not the child consents to be exploited’

  3. What does the convention expect of us? • To develop guidance and procedures on: • Identification of trafficked children • Referral on to appropriate support • Repatriation and resettlement • Co-operation between agencies

  4. UK Response • Development of the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) • NRM is a referral form for suspected cases of trafficking which can only be sent by ‘First Responders’ Social Services or the Police personnel • Referrals are sent to the UK Human Trafficking Centre in Sheffield who work closely with the ‘First Responder’ and the UKBA to come to a decision about whether the referral is, or is likely to be, a case of trafficking. • This decision has implications for the immigration status of the child.

  5. The picture in Wales • April 2008 –WAG published guidance ‘Safeguarding Children who may have been Trafficked’ • April 1st 2009 all local authorities informed about the NRM • Some Local Safeguarding Children Boards have developed protocols to supplement the all Wales guidance – currently there are discussion taking place to publish an All Wales Protocol to ensure continuity and consistency

  6. Small Group Exercise • For what purpose are young people trafficked into the UK?

  7. Why young people are traffick into the UK? • Sexual exploitation • Domestic servitude • Agricultural labour, including tending plants in illegal cannabis farms • Sweatshop, restaurant and other catering work • Credit card fraud, benefit fraud, petty crime • Drug mules, drug dealing or decoys for adult drug traffickers • Illegal interagency adoption

  8. Safeguarding guidance • UK (2000) Safeguarding Children Involved in Prostitution • UK (2006) Working together to Safeguarding Children • UK (2007) Safeguarding Children who may have been Trafficked • WAG (2008) Safeguarding Children who may have been Trafficked

  9. Legislation • The Criminal Justice Act - 1988 • Proceeds of Crime Act - 1995 • Children Act 1989 & 2004 • Nationality Immigration and Asylum Act - 2002 • Sexual Offences Act - 2003 • The Asylum and Immigration Act - 2004 • Gangmasters Licensing Act - 2004

  10. Case Studies • Small Group Exercise

  11. CASE STUDY ONE • Following a police raid on a cannabis house, 3 adults and a 15 year old male from Vietnam were arrested. • During an interview with an interpreter the 15 year old explains that he left Vietnam 4 years ago. He says he has worked in various countries and also that he is not related to the adults he was found with. He said he was told to turn lights on at certain times to keep the plants alive. He is currently being held in a secure training centre. • What are your concerns/feelings and thoughts about this young man? • What actions are you going to take?

  12. CASE STUDY TWO • A young person who comes to your project has told you that his parents have arranged for a 13 year old girl to come to the UK from Uganda to help them out with house work and child care. • What concerns have you got? • What action would you take?

  13. CASE STUDY THREE • A 15 year old young woman from Eastern Europe is found in a brothel by police. • She came to the UK as she was approached in a disco in her home country and asked if she wanted to work here. But then when she arrived she was put in a brothel. • When she was spoken to by the police she stated that she had been sexually exploited as well in her home country. And now she wants to return home. • What are your thoughts/feelings and concerns? • What action are you going to take?

  14. Welsh Research • Under the Covers, Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Wales- Wales Amnesty International (September2007) • The care and protection of asylum- seeking and trafficked children in Wales- Agenda for Action – Save the Children( December 2008) • Bordering on Concern- Child Trafficking in Wales – Children’s Commissioner for Wales (March 2009) • The role of local authorities in addressing human trafficking SOLACE (UK) ( April 2009)

  15. Key recommendations of research • To conduct an audit of service need with regard to awareness raising and training need • That a lead member of staff with experience of child trafficking issues should be developed in each area. • Continued awareness raising and dissemination of information by the WSMP • Consider specialist support for foster carers who look after trafficked children

  16. Policy and implementation • WAG Children’s Safeguarding Team host an All-Wales Child Trafficking Group • The Welsh Strategic Migration Partnership (WSMP) and the WLGA host a trafficking group - currently scoping exercise to ascertain the levels of awareness and training need amongst staff in LA’s and LSCB’s

  17. Barnardo’s Cymru Seraf Service • 1:1 support for young people trafficked for sexual purposes • Access to counselling service • Access to Barnardo’s interpretive services • Consultation, support and advice: with completion of trafficking risk matrix; attendance at strategy meetings • Signposting

  18. Websites and organisations • www.childrenslegalcentre.com • www.ecpat.org.uk • www.unicef.org.uk • www.crop1.org.uk • www.ceop.gov.uk • www.wlga.gov.uk/childrenpolicy • www.antislavery.org • www.missingpeople.org.uk • www.nruc.gov.uk • www.amnesty.org.uk