Multiple Sclerosis. Abdulelah Nuqali Intern. What is Multiple Sclerosis?. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an acquired inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS (brain and spinal cord). How Common is MS and Who Gets It?. 8,000 – 10,000 new cases are diagnosed annually
Multiple Sclerosis Abdulelah Nuqali Intern
What is Multiple Sclerosis? • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an acquired inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS (brain and spinal cord).
How Common is MS and Who Gets It? • 8,000 – 10,000 new cases are diagnosed annually • Affects nearly 500,000 individuals in the U.S. • Occurs most frequently between ages 25 - 35 • Affects women 2 to 3 times as often as men • More frequent in populations native to areas further away from the equator • Prevalence of MS in KSA is 4-8 cases per 100,000
What Causes MS? • Unknown • Genetics • Environmental factors
Not Everyone with a Genetic Risk Will Develop MS – Why? • Risk is modified by Environmental factors • Sunlight • Diet (e.g., vitamin D) • Other lifetime experiences (infections?)
Relapsing-remitting Secondary-progressive Disability Disability Disability Disability Time Time Primary-progressive Progressive-relapsing Time Time Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Subtypes Lublin FD et al. Neurology. 1996;46:907-911.
How Is MS Diagnosed? • At least two episodes of symptoms • Occur at different points in time (DIT) • Result from involvement of different areas of the central nervous system (DIS) • Absence of other treatable causes for the symptoms • Results of neurological testing
Examples of MS Onset • Case 1: 26 year old woman • Decreased vision in the right eye in 9/05 • Left leg numbness in 1/06 • Right face numbness, right arm and leg weakness in 4/06 • Left leg weakness in 8/06 • Case 2: 45 year old man • Left arm weakness in 2/93 • Numbness below the waist in 4/07
How Is MS Diagnosed? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) CSF : • slight mononuclear pleocytosis or elevated in protein • Increase IgG ( elevated IgG index OR the presence of oligoclonal IgG bands ) Visual evoked potentials
How is MS Treated and Managed? • Drug therapy • Treat new attacks (exacerbations) • Prevent the occurrence of future attacks • Slow or prevent disease progression • Treat the chronic symptoms of the disease • Physical therapy • Psychosocial support
Treatment of New MS Exacerbations • Drug therapy • Corticosteroids • Intravenous immunoglobulin • Plasma exchange • Physical therapy
Prevention of Future Attacks and Disease Progression • Immune modulating drugs • Beta-Interferon • Glatiramer acetate • Humanized monoclonal antibodies • Immunosuppressant drugs • Anti-cancer agents • Combination therapies
Summary • MS is a common inflammatory disease of the CNS that affects females more frequently than males. • The cause of MS appears to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. • The symptoms of MS can be quite variable. • MRI is a sensitive test for making the diagnosis of MS. • Treatments are available for reducing the number of MS attacks and for slowing MS disease progression.