Grammar Overview Sentence Fragments, Colons, Semicolons
Fragments • What is a sentence fragment? • An incomplete sentence that is punctuated like it was a complete sentence. Example: Yesterday, I went to the high school. Voted for governor.
Fragments • What makes a sentence fragment? • No subject 2. Has no complete predicate (something about the subject) 3. A subordinate clause is punctuated (dependent clause with subject and predicate, but does not have a complete thought) • How can you correct a fragment? Either by attaching it to a main clause or add extra word to makes it a complete sentence.
Colons • What is a colon? • A (:) that is used to introduce a list, separate the hour and minutes, and used after a greeting in a business letter. • However, DO NOT use a colon in a list if it follows a verb or a preposition. Example: We need these ingredients: milk, eggs, and bread. School starts at 7:20 A.M. To Whom it May Concern:
Colons • When can you use a colon? • To introduce material that either illustrates, explains, or restates the preceding material. Example: The cause of the fire was obvious: Children had been playing with lighters. • To introduce a long or formal quotation. Example: Patrick Henry, speaking before the Virginia Convention, closed his speech with these words: “Give me liberty or give me death!”
Semicolons • What is a semicolon? • A (;) is a punctuation to join the main clauses of a compound sentence. DO NOT use if a coordinating conjunction is in a sentence; instead, use a comma. Example: Juliana will sing the melody; Maurice and Lee will harmonize.
Semicolons • When do you use a semicolon? • Period Test: If the two independent clauses can be separated with a period and be grammatically correct, then a semicolon can be used. Example: I love books; Stephen King is my favorite author. I love books. Stephen King is my favorite author. Therefore: I love books; Stephen King is my favorite author.
The marsupials of Australia include the following koalas, bandicoots, and kangaroos. My sister keeps her room very clean she’s a tidy person. I have lived in Chicago; Illinois for many years, my sister has always lived in Texas. My favorite subjects are these, English, history, and art. Mark never studied for tests, nonetheless; he got good grades. Practice In your notebook, rewrite the following sentences by correcting any errors in the use of colons and semicolons. This will be collected.
Practice- Answers • The marsupials of Australia include the following: koalas, bandicoots, and kangaroos. 2. My sister keeps her room very clean; she’s a tidy person. 3. I have lived in Chicago, Illinois for many years; my sister has always lived in Texas. 4. My favorite subjects are these: English, history, and art. 5. Mark never studied for tests; nonetheless, he got good grades.
Practice In your notebook, revise each fragments to be a complete sentence. Add whatever words are necessary. This will be collected. • Driving down the road. • All of a sudden, a flat tire. • Must change it and get to school on time. • Unfortunately, rain coming down in torrents. • Beside the road on a flat, grassy area.
Practice- Answers 1. I was driving down the road. 2. When all of a sudden, I had a flat tire. 3. I must change it and get to school on time. 4. Unfortunately, the rain was coming down in torrents. 5. Beside the road on a flat, grassy area there was a place where I could park and change the tire.