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Credit System: Concept, Policy, Practice and Procedure. Today should be better than yesterday. Scope for Discussion. Credit system – introduction and the history Credit : why and what Credit and student learning Credit and qualifications Credit transfer and exit credit Case study

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credit system concept policy practice and procedure

Credit System: Concept, Policy, Practice and Procedure

Today should be better than yesterday

scope for discussion
Scope for Discussion
  • Credit system – introduction and the history
  • Credit : why and what
  • Credit and student learning
  • Credit and qualifications
  • Credit transfer and exit credit
  • Case study
  • Code of practice, guidelines and procedures
  • Calculating / simulation credit and developing scheme of studies
  • Conclusion (Q&A)
outcomes the participants should be able
Outcomes: the participants should be able,
  • to relate credit system and its applications and interpretations in MQF:
  • to critically examined the various definitions and understanding of credit system:
  • to relate credit system with

- student learning,

- learning outcomes,

- qualifications and

- credit transfer

outcomes the participants should be able4
Outcomes: the participants should be able,
  • to relate and calculate,
    • student learning time (SLT) / student academic load,
    • credit value for specific course
    • total credit for specific program of study
    • number of weeks of program,
    • the number of semester and
    • develop scheme of study based on student academic load per week and the semester length
the beginning
The Beginning

National Workshop on Credit system conducted by Quality Assurance Division of the Ministry of Higher Education on 31 Jan – 2 Feb 2005 proposed that,

  • A credit should be calculated based on 40 national hours

Note: The concept of 40 national hours is compatible to LAN guideline that a credit normally requires 40 hours of student learning.

basic glossary definition
Basic Glossary / Definition

Malaysian Qualification Framework : an explanation or national education system description, understood at international level, explains all qualifications and learning outcome in higher education and connect these qualifications meaningfully.

Qualifying level: is an award level analysed with generic products or qualification parser which characterise typical qualifications in it; For each genetic level result differentiates student’s abilities from (i) depth and complexity of knowledge and understanding, (ii) knowledge and skill application, (iii) autonomy and creativity degree in decision-making, (iv) communication skills, (v) practice area and sophistication etc

Source: Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (KKM)

basic glossary definition7
Basic Glossary / Definition

Profile: refers to a specific subject or study area of a qualification or different characteristics in a qualification cluster of various fields which has a pressure or the same level. (For example, Bachelor’s through coursework, research, combination or based on expertise). Profile also refers to the qualification of the same name but serves different purposes (for example, skill certificate and academic certificate as a tertiary education preparation.

Qualification: degree, diploma or certificate awarded by both public and private institutes of higher learning or by authorised parties and/or confirm the achieved learning outcome, normally succesfully completed a recognised higher learning programme.

why credit
Why Credit ?
  • an instrument to estimate the amount (volume) of student learning (normally expressed in hours) to enable the student to achieve the expected learning outcomes
  • To develop curriculum, graduation requirements and award of a qualification as determined by the fields of study and the level of qualificaitons.
  • To facilitate student mobility and equivalency of course and program
concept of credit in learning
Concept of Credit in Learning

Core Definition: (1) Recognition of a (2) unit of learning, usually measured (3a) in hours of study or (3b) achievement of the threshold standard’

Adapted from Harvey, L 2004. www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary 2004 as retrieved on 2 April 2007

UNESCO Definition: ‘A credit is generally agreed-upon value used to measure a student workload in terms of learning time required to complete course units, resulting in learning outcomes’

Source: Vlasceanu, et.al. 2004 as retrieved from www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary 2004 as retrieved on 2 April 2007

concept of credit in learning10
Concept of Credit in Learning

LAN: ‘A credit requires about 40 hours of student learning

As an example teaching activity through lecture method (face-to-face), ‘1 credit requires first, one horus of lecture per week for a period of a semester (say 14 weeks) and secondly for every hours of lecture it is assumed that an additional two hours (informal learning hours) is required.

Therefore one credit means (1 hour lecture + 2 additional hours of learning) X 14 weeks = 42 hours

Source: Garis Panduan Kriteria dan Standard Kursus Pengajian IPTS 2002, m.s 13 dan 16

concept of credit in learning11
Concept of Credit in Learning

The Northeast Texas Network Consortium (NTNC,2002) define credit as a value assigned to a course. Usually one credit equals one 50 minute class period per week. Many courses carry 3 credits and meet for three 50 minute periods a week.

Source: www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary 2004 as retrieved on 2 April 2007

“Academic credit is a measure of the total time commitment required by a typical student in a particular course of study. Total times consists of three components: (1) time spent in class; (2) time spent in laboratory, studio, field work, or other scheduled activity; (3) time devoted to reading, studying, problem solving, writing or preparations.”

Source: C.J Quann, A handbook of Policies and Procedures. The handbook apparently represents the current standard among collegiate registrars in US. http://oregonstate.edu/ap/curriculum/policies/C_credits.html [Retrieved 16 April 2007]

concept of credit in learning12
Concept of Credit in Learning

Example (quarter system): The Oregon State University Catalog states that “One credit is generally given for three hours per week of work in and out of class. For example, each hour of class lecture is generally expected to require two hours of work out of class.” Thus, one quarter credit represents 30 hours of work.

Source: http://oregonstate.edu/ap/curriculum/policies/C_credits.html [Retrieved 16 April 2007]

concept of credit in learning13
Concept of Credit in Learning

The New Zealand Qualification Authority (NZQA.2003) and the South Africa Qualification Authority (SAQA,2000), also both define credit on ‘notional learning hours’ but are more explicit in including the time spent ‘in doing assignments ….. and time spent in assessment’

Source: www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary 2004 as retrieved on 2 April 2007

University of Exeter (2004) definition: Credit is awarded to a learner in recognition of the verified achievement of learning outcomes at a specified level. one credit equates to 10 notional hours of learning successfully achieved and works on the basis of achievement at threshold standard

www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary 2004 as retrieved on 2 April 2007

concept of credit in learning14
Concept of Credit in Learning

The Scottish Qualification Authority (SQA) defines credit as:

the amount of time that an “average” learner at a specified level might expect to take to achieve the outcomes regardless of the mode of delivery or assessment’

Source: SQA 2002, as retrieved from www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary 2004 as retrieved on 2 April 2007

The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (EU, 2004) defines ECTS credits as:

The currency to measure student workload in terms of notional learning time required to achieve specified learning outcomes

Retrieved from www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary 2004 as retrieved on 2 April 2007

concept of credit in learning15
Concept of Credit in Learning

MQA / MQF defines credit to mean a representative measure to reflect the academic load and

An ‘academic load’ is defined to mean the quantitative measure of learning activities which includes lectures, tutorials, practical work, field works, self study, examinations and other related activities to achieve a set learning outcomes.’

MAF has established that one credit is equivalent to 40 notional hours

learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes means the standard to be achieved from an educational programme or qualification as determined by the Framework

Learning outcomes is therefore a statement of what students are required to know, comprehend and able to perform after a certain period of study. The learning outcomes are stated at three levels namely, the qualification level, the field of study level and the programme of study level.

mqf learning outcomes lo domains
MQF Learning Outcomes (LO) domains

(1) knowledge of discipline areas,

(2) practical skill,

(3) social skills and responsibilities,

(4) value, attitude and professionalism,

(5) communication, leadership and team skills

(6) problem solving and scientific skills

(7) information management and lifelong learning skills

(8) managerial and entrepreneurial skills

lo of qualifications e g honours bachelor s degree
LO of Qualifications (e.g. Honours Bachelor’s Degree)
  • Holders must demonstrate an understanding of a systematic and coherent body of complex knowledge and able to provide a basis for postgraduate study and professional careers.
  • Holders must possess necessary attributes to undertake research, comprehend and evaluate new information and concepts from a range of sources, weigh evidence, arguments with a degree of cognitive autonomy.
  • Holders must possess oral, written and interpersonal communication and team skills.
  • Holders must be able to manage and use information as a foundation for self-directed life long learning.

Reference: Credit System Workshop at Holiday Villa 31 Jan – 2 Feb 2005

desirable impact of mqf credit system in managing student learning
Desirable impact of MQF Credit System in managing student learning
  • Credit calculation not entirely bound to contact hour
  • supports the varied mode of delivery namely full time, part time, weekends, distant learning, e-learning, problem based, hands-on collaborative degree and also non-structured learning in the informal sectors and self-learning
  • Emphasis is on student learning and learning outcomes
  • Paradigm shift – teacher as facilitator of learning / guide and managed student learning using varieties of teaching/learning and student assessment
  • Facilitate lifelong learning
  • Allow autonomy for HEIs and students in developing scheme of study for the program
desirable impact of mqf credit system in managing student learning20
Desirable impact of MQF Credit System in managing student learning

Lecture (Definition)

“An instructional method by which the lecturer seeks; to create interest, to influence, stimulate or mould opinion, to promote activity, to impart information, or to develop critical thinking, largely by the use of verbal messages, with a mininum of class participation; illustrations, maps, charts or other materials may be employed to supplement the oral techniques”

Source: Association for Educational Communications and Technology D.C (1977)

desirable impact of mqf credit system in managing student learning21
Desirable impact of MQF Credit System in managing student learning

Emphasis on Higher Cognitive Skills

  • Knowledge
  • Understanding
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Evaluation
student academic load learning student learning time slt
Student Academic Load (Learning)/Student Learning Time (SLT)

Zainai (2006) study showed that student learning time per week is limited between 40-55 hours. SLT is inclusive of guided learning (including lecture), independent learning and assessment

LAN/MQA specify that 48 hours of student academic load in learning/student learning time per week as an acceptable guide as derived from 8 hour per day X 6 days per week

SLT consists of (1) face-to-face component and (2) non face-to-face. Non face-to-face must be managed / planned to ensure all the accumulated learning activities in fulfilling the desired learning outcomes and reflect the value of the credit

student academic load learning student learning time slt23
Student Academic Load (Learning)/Student Learning Time (SLT)
  • Nominal available time in human life – 2 major components:
    • Time for routine/nature activities, i.e. sleeping, physical exercise, travelling, to maintain a healthy lifestyle, etc
    • Time left to be benefited from or for self improvement i.e. for work or study.
  • Availability of quality time for self improvement:

Approximately 40±5 hours per week (for a normal or average person)

Source: Zainai as quoted by Prof Shahrin (APP Workshop 27-29 April 2007)

slide24
Number of semester and credit per semester based on specific student learning time (SLT) per week for a program

Assumption: Total student learning time for program (TSL TP=4800 hours = 120 credit for a semester length of 14 weeks

slide25
Number of semester and credit per semester based on specific student learning time (SLT) per week for a program

Assumption: Total student learning time for program (TSL TP=4800 hours = 120 credit for a semester length of 17 weeks

slide26
Number of semester and credit per semester based on specific student learning time (SLT) per week for a program

Assumption: Total student learning time for program (TSL TP=4800 hours = 120 credit for a semester length of 20 weeks

mqf credit and qualifications
MQF Credit and Qualifications
  • Course of study means a single or a set of related courses and includes short of long courses leading to an award of higher education qualification
  • Program means any arrangement of a course of study that is structured or designed to achieve a learning outcome leading to an award of a higher education qualification
  • Credit mininum for a program is determined by the fields of study and the level of qualifications and in accordance to the criteria and standards as established by MQF.
mqf credit and qualifications28
MQF Credit and Qualifications

Example of minimum credit for each level of qualification

*Refer to Guidelines for Post graduate studies

mqf credit and qualifications29
MQF Credit and Qualifications
  • Minimum credit for fields of study
    • Minimum number of credits for each field of study can be more but not less than the minimum number of credits at a qualification level
    • The minimum credits differs between fields of study. For example, for the Bachelor of Engineering, the minimum number of credits is higher than that for the Bachelor of Economics
    • The minimum credits of a field study is fixed based on the standard determined by the field of study technical committee. The membership of the committee should represent the stakeholders from academia, the industrial sector, various professions, employers, Government and other relevant parties.
mqf credit and qualifications30
MQF Credit and Qualifications
  • The minimum number of credit for each programme must be in line with the allocated ratio of the field of study in a programme as follows;
    • For a programme which comprises only one main field of study as a major, the minimum number of credits is awarded to that field of study of major for example Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (Hons), Bachelor of Dentistry
    • For a programme which comprises areas of specialisation in a main field of study, at least 25 percent of the minimum credits must be allocated to each area of specialisation. For example, Bachelor of Computer Science (Networking) Honours.
mqf credit and qualifications31
MQF Credit and Qualifications

Minimum credit for programme of study

  • For a double major programme which has the same number of basic components in two main fields of study, the minimum credits must be in the ratio of 50-50. For example, Bachelor of Political AND Bachelor of Economics (Hons)
  • For a major-minor programme, at least 25 percent of the minimum credits are allocated to the minor field of study. For example, Bachelor of Biological Science WITH Education (Hons).
credit transfer
Credit Transfer
  • ‘Credit Transfer’ means the recognition of credits earned in an accredited programme for the purpose of transferring to another programme
  • MQF has determined that not less than 30% of credit requirement must be completed at the exit institution
  • Credit transfer is subjected to the existing policy on credit transfer
credit transfer34
Credit Transfer

LAN: 1 credit = 40 learning hour for system semester of 14 weeks

U.S.: (1) 1 credit = 45 learning hour for a semester of 15 weeks

(2) 1 credit = 30 learning hour for a quarter of 10 weeks

U.K credit = 10 notional hour

MQF. 1 credit = 40 notional hour

European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) = 25 notional hour

Credit can be transferred by determining the conversion factor

code of practice for quality assurance with respect to mqf credit system
Code of Practice for Quality Assurance with respect to MQF Credit System
  • Credit for a course or a programme of study is determined by taking all the student academic load or the total student learning time to achieve the learning outcomes as set by the course or the programme of study.
  • Student and instructor be informed/advised of the need to allocate an average learning time per week when undertaking any programme of study (example 48 hours weekly study time)
  • Each learning activity and the effective learning time to achieve the set learning outcomes be determined for each course required by the programme.
code of practice for quality assurance with respect to mqf credit system37
Code of Practice for Quality Assurance with respect to MQF Credit System
  • The number of semester for a programme of study is determined by calculating the credit required by the programme and as calculated based on 40 notional hour and the average student learning time per week and the length of the semester (in weeks) being implemented.
  • The process for credit exemption and transfer is guided by the institution’s guidelines and procedures to enable the credit transfer and exemption be carried out between programmes, qualifications and institution.
  • The calculation to determine the student workload / student learning time for each learning activity is guided by the guideline for estimating student workload appropriate for the fields of study / discipline.
code of practice for quality assurance with respect to mqf credit system38
Code of Practice for Quality Assurance with respect to MQF Credit System
  • The hours of face-to-face teaching and learning / formal learning / other form of guided learning (such as tutorial and laboratory learning activities) and the non face-to-face learning / independent learning (inclusive of self-learning and doing assignments and similar activities) / informal learning is indicated in the curriculum outlines. The non face-to-face learning is a managed learning.
  • Managing semester credit load for the programme of study is autonomously given to the student and the institution.
example of guidelines for estimating credit
Example of Guidelines for Estimating Credit

Lecture (MQF): Every hour of lecture add 1-2 hrs of study time. Complex subject may require 3 hrs or more of independent learning.

Reference: Credit System Workshop at Holiday Villa 31 Jan – 2 Feb 2005

Lecture (LAN): 1 credit = 1 hr lecture per week for 14 weeks. Student load = (1 hour lecture + 2 additional learning hrs for per week) X 14 = 42 hrs

Tutorial (MQF): For every tutorial (which may last between 1-2 hours) add 1-2 hours of preparation time.

Reference: Credit System Workshop at Holiday Villa 31 Jan – 2 Feb 2005

Tutorial (LAN): One credit requires at least 1.5 hour contact per week for 14 weeks.

example of guidelines for estimating credit40
Example of Guidelines for Estimating Credit

Laboratory (USA): Laboratory or studio course: at least two contact hours per credit hour (one hour of outside preparation implied)

Laboratory (MQF(): A three-hour laboratory usually includes the time for writing the report. In some disciplines such as Biomedical and Health Sciences as well as Engineering. A 2 hour laboratory may require 2-3 hours of preparation and report writing

Reference: Credit System Workshop at Holiday Villa 31 Jan – 2 Feb 2005

Laboratory (LAN): For laboratory teaching activities, 1 credit value requires meeting of at least 2-3 hours per week for a period of 14 weeks.

example of guidelines for estimating credit41
Example of Guidelines for Estimating Credit

Industrial Training (MQF): Should be calculated based on number of effective learning hours / day x day per week x weeks allocated for the training.

Reference: Credit System Workshop at Holiday Villa 31 Jan – 2 Feb 2005.

Proposal: To fix a minimum continuous duration of 8 weeks (1 credit = 2 weeks)

Industrial Training (LAN): For practical training, 1 credit value requires continuing activity of 6 hours per day for a period of ½ a month.

Proposal for Industrial training (Panel of Allied Health Sciences): 320 hours (at least 2 months)

example of guidelines for estimating credit42
Example of Guidelines for Estimating Credit

Final year project (Hons) – MQF should require 240-400 hours of student work (6-10 credits) with 1-2 hours / week contact time with supervisor, and may be either be based on laboratory / experimental work or literature survey or both.

Reference: Credit System Workshop at Holiday Villa 31 Jan – 2 Feb 2005.

example of guidelines for estimating credit43
Example of Guidelines for Estimating Credit

Discussion (MQF): Group discussion lasting 1-2 hours add one hour of preparation time.

Presentation (MQF): For one hour presentation session, allocate 3-4 hour preparation time.

Written assignment (MQF): For a 2000 word written assignment allocate about 10-20 hours

example of guidelines for estimating credit44
Example of Guidelines for Estimating Credit

Self-learning (MQF)

Example: Fixed Module / e-learning : A fixed learning module (FLM) in Medicine or e-learning may take about 3 hours of student time but these are considered as independent learning

Reference: Credit System Workshop at Holiday Villa 31 Jan – 2 Feb 2005

  • Self-learning (LAN):
  • For virtual teaching activities, 1 credit value requires 2-3 hours per week of learning and teaching concentrated for 14 weeks.
  • For Distance education a credit requires 3.5-4.00 hours of self-learning.

Electronic / e-Learning (Panel Allied Medical Sciences): Total of a unit of learning = 3-5 hour

case study47
Case Study

This information is only for the use of this seminar and is not to be distributed or used as reference. The rationale of the information and factor could cause no uniformity

procedure to determine student learning time academic load credit
Procedure to determine student learning time / academic load & credit

1a. To refer to the MQF 8 domains of generic learning outcomes

1b. To refer to the learning outcomes at a specific level of qualification.

1c. To refer to the learning outcomes of the field of study at a specific level of qualification.

1d. To determine the programme learning outcomes in accordance to the field of study and the level of qualifications and MQF 8 domains of learning outcomes.

procedure to determine student learning time academic load credit49
Procedure to determine student learning time / academic load & credit

2. To list all the courses required by the curriculum of the programme in accordance to the field of study and the level of qualification.

  • Example
  • Major courses (basic, core, electives)
  • Specialization / minor courses (basic, core)
  • Free electives (if applicable)
  • Generic courses such as communication, management, entrepreneurial, liberal arts and humanities (compulsory and electives)
procedure to determine student learning time academic load credit50
Procedure to determine student learning time / academic load & credit

3. To specify the LO of each course appropriate to the specifications of the LO for the programme.

  • LO for Basic Genetics Course
  • At the end of the course the student should be able to:
  • Demonstrate the understanding and application of the general principles in basic genetics at classical, molecular and population levels.
  • Acquire basic skills in laboratory works to demonstrate the understanding and application of basic knowledge of various principles in basic genetics.
  • Demonstrate the knowledge on the history and biography of the individuals that have successfully made genetics as an important basic science.
  • Recognise the impact of genetics on human and the welfare of the society
procedure to determine student learning time academic load credit51
Procedure to determine student learning time / academic load & credit

3. (continuation). To specify the LO of each module of the course appropriate to the specifications of the LO for the programme.

  • LO for Module 2 for Basic Genetics – Mendelian Genetics: the two laws of inheritance
  • At the end of the course the student should be able to:
  • Demonstrate the knowledge of historical development and discovery of Mendelian genetics.
  • Demonstrate the understanding of various terminologies in Mendelian genotype, monohybrid, dihybrid, F1 and F2 generation, test-cross;
  • Demonstrate the understanding of Mendelian Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment;
  • Relate the behaviour of homologous chromosome orientation at metaphase stage of meiosis towards the understanding of independent assortment;
  • Analyse the data with respect to monohybrid and dihybridhybridisations.
  • Module Prerequisite: Has prior knowledge on mitosis and meiosis
procedure to determine student learning time academic load credit52
Procedure to determine student learning time / academic load & credit

3. (continuation). To specify the LO of each module (laboratory) of the course appropriate to the specifications of the LO for the programme.

  • Example of LO for Laboratory 2: Mendelian Genetics
  • At the end of the Laboratory 2, the students should be able to:
  • Identify the various phenotypes of the monohybrid and dihybrid hybridization experiement;
  • Relate the genotypes with every phenotypes observed;
  • Make hypothesis on the inheritance of one or two genes;
  • Analyse the data and interpret the result to support the hypothesis using X2 statistic;
  • Presents / write report for evaluation
procedure to determine student learning time academic load credit53
Procedure to determine student learning time / academic load & credit

4a. To determine all learning activities and the learning time for each topic in the course appropriate to the LO programme specifications

Examples of various learning activities and the respective student learning time for Mendelian Genetics Module.

procedure to determine student learning time academic load credit54
Procedure to determine student learning time / academic load & credit

4b. To determine all activities and the learning time for each module or topics within module in the course appropriate to the LO programme specifications.

slide55

5. To list all learning activities and determine the total student learning time (TSLT) in accordance to the guideline for each course in the programme (Example TSLT Basic Genetics is 126 hours)

procedure to determine student learning time academic load credit56
Procedure to determine student learning time / academic load & credit

6. To calculate credit value of each course.

Example 1: Credit value for a course in Basic Genetic is 126/40 = 3.15 or 3

Example 2: Basic and core courses in Information Technology

F2F = Face to face learning, SLT = Student Learning Time

procedure to determine student learning time academic load credit57
Procedure to determine student learning time / academic load & credit
  • To calculate total learning time for the programme (TSLTP) Example TSLTP = 4800 hours
  • To calculate total credit for the programme (TSLTP/40) or 4800/40 = 120 credit
  • To establish the length of semester (in weeks such as 14 weeks.
  • To establish an appropriate student learning time per week. (SLT/M) (example 8 hr per day x 6 days per week = 48)
procedure to determine student learning time academic load credit58
Procedure to determine student learning time / academic load & credit
  • To calculate the number of weeks required to complete the programme. (Example: TSLTP/48) or 4800/48 = 100 weeks
  • To calculate total number of semester required to complete the programme based on the selected semester length. (Example: Total weeks/ semester length 100/14 = 7.1 semester)
  • To devise the study scheme for the programme according to semester.
  • To ensure the student academic load is fair.
slide59
Example of student learning time (SLT in hours) for various guided and independent learning activities in a semester
simulation to calculate student learning time credit and related data
Simulation to calculate student learning time, credit and related data

Example of learning activities to be simulated are,

  • Lecture (face-to-face and non face-to-face hours)
  • Practical / Laboratory (face-to-face and non face-to-face hours)
  • Tutorial (face-to-face and non face-to-face hours)
  • Other learning activities (face-to-face and non face-to-face hours)
  • Assignments
  • Tests / Examinations

Face-to-face (guided) / formal, Non face-to-face learning that is a managed learning / informal)

simulation outcomes
Simulation Outcomes

Simulation is able to,

  • calculate credit for course and programme of study
  • calculate number of weeks to complete the programme
  • calculate the required number of semester based on semester length (in weeks)
  • calculate student weekly workload / student learning time per week based on specific number of credit registered (full time / part time)
  • calculate the real contact hour / face-to-face learning and the non face-to-face hours
  • any other desired statistics
conclusion
Conclusion

THANK YOU

Yale Consultancy SdnBhd

info@yaleconsultant.com

03-2021 0577