Preparing for Interviews (and Assessment Centres) David Henderson Careers Adviser email@example.com http://durhamcasnews.wordpress.com
Interviews and Assessment Centres • Preparing for interviews • Performing at interview • What questions will I be asked? • What can I expect at an assessment centre?
Practical preparation What is the format? • First interview • Second Interview • Technical or competency • Panel • Telephone • Assessment Centre http://www.wikijob.co.uk/ Interview practice e.g. mock interview, friends – practice talking about yourself Questions for the employer! Basics – avoid unnecessary stress (location, date/time, travel arrangements, dress, items to take etc)
Know yourself, your strengths and your weaknesses • Know your CV and Application Form INSIDE/OUT! • Strengths: your ‘unique selling points’ • Weaknesses: Give examples that can be ‘corrected’ / areas for development
Know the job and the employer The Job • Talk to someone doing the job • Familiarise yourself with the role • Tip: refer to case studies on Target Jobs, Prospects, employer websites & professional bodies The Employer • Presentations at University, company reports (Hemscott, Morning Star), careers literature, websites • Shows commitment, enthusiasm, motivation • Tip: search for company related articles on online websites of the Guardian, Times, Independent etc
Knowledge about the job http://www.prospects.ac.uk Knowledge of the organisation Business publications/sector specific press http://www.consulting-times.com http://www.efinancialnews.com/ http://www.efinancialcareers.co.uk/companySearch.htm http://www.ft.com/companies Business directories http://www.kompass.com/ http://www.hemscott.com/
Psychological preparation • Selector are not there to embarrass you or show your weaknesses • Conversation not an interrogation • Interviewer sets the pace, but you participate fully • You are there to secure the position – opportunities to make your points • Does the company match your expectations ? • Positive attitude – you are here for a reason!
Aim of the interview • To assess the knowledge that you have marketed in your initial application • To evaluate your transferable skills under pressure • To judge how you would fit into their organisation, institution, department • To create a positive impression (on both sides!) • Ultimately, they want to know: Can you do the job? Will you do the job? Will you fit in? BUT • It is also an opportunity for you to judge whether you want to work for them
First Impressions • Be polite to everyone (they could all be asked for their opinion!) • Professional and friendly manner • Be confident/establish eye contact • The interviewer may be nervous
What you say / How you say it What you say • Listen to the question • Try to quantify your answers – don’t just give yes/no answers • Volunteer relevant information about yourself • Get across pre-planned key points How you say it • Clarity but also enthusiasm and conviction • Body language conveys 65% of what is communicated, words convey 35% How long should I speak for? • Difficult to quantify; ensure that you answer question fully • Focused answers; avoid narrative and over-explanation • Use judgement; body-language of interviewer
Key Questions • Why are you applying to us? • What interests you in this job? • Why should we employ you? • What do you consider your strengths?…and your weaknesses? • How did you choose your degree subject? Why Durham?
Competency Questions • Designed to let you sell yourself and evaluate your transferable skills under pressure • Provide specific examples; not general opinions or philosophies • Need to impress / interest them here • Consider why question is being asked (make your answer relevant to the job for which you are applying). E.G. Achievements - Motivation, overcoming difficulties, problem solving E.G. Career Choice – appreciation of what skills are needed in this role, evidence of when you have used said skills E.G. Team Work – effective interaction with other people, what constitutes good teamwork, barriers to effective teamwork etc
STAR Quality Situation - describe with clarity Tasks - outline what needed doing Action - your actions taken (what you did but crucially HOW you did it) Result - outcomes/reflections
Example Questions Teamwork/Leadership • Tell me about a time when you worked hard to get on with others. What steps did you take to improve relationships within the team? How did you encourage open discussion? What was the most difficult aspect & what was most personally satisfying? • When have you had to work with a complete stranger? • How would you motivate an underperforming team? Decision Making/Organisation • Tell me about a time when you had to make a practical decision about priorities and tasks. What specifically were you trying to accomplish? What was difficult /easy about this? Tell me about the other options you considered. What were the influencing factors you took into account? What was the final outcome? • How would you prioritise between two competing projects?
Example Questions continued… Customer/Client Relations Tell me about a time when you experienced very good (or bad) customer service. In your opinion what constitutes excellent service? Why is this important? Communication Give me an example of an occasion when you had to persuade someone? When have you had to present a case? What approach did you adopt? Problem Solving Give me an example of when you sat yourself a challenging goal, and explain how you achieved it. What sort of things put you under pressure? Give me an example and explain how you coped. Commercial Awareness When have you improved an organisation or service? What commercial experience have you gained from p-t employment? http://www.dur.ac.uk/careers/students/generalinformation/interviewsandassessmentcentres/interviews/listenandlearn/
Competency snapshot – Barclays Retail Open questions addressing career motivation and commercial awareness • What do you know about Barclays Retail Bank? • How did you find this information? • Why are you attracted to this position in finance? • What is Barclays doing at the moment? • What do you think you will be doing if you receive this position? (I stated some things, and the interviewer asked me what they would involve specifically) • Describe a time when working as a team you have had to analyse information and deliver an objective in timed conditions. How did you ensure the task was completed on time? What sort of information did you have to analyse? What did you learn for the experience? (cannot use university examples) • Describe a time when you have had to deliver a difficult message which let down or disappointed someone? How did they react? • Describe a time when you have convinced a team to follow a path they were initially resistant to. how did you convince them? Why did they not want to follow the path initially? What was the result? What did you learn? Very specific competency questions…you are expected to provide answers that critically evaluate your contribution and impact.
Challenging Questions • What would you describe as your greatest strength? • What would you say is your major weakness? • How would you define your approach to team working? • Would you say you were a follower or a leader? • How well do you work under pressure? • How would you rate yourself from 1-10? • Have you ever had a bad experience with another employer? • What would you say is your greatest achievement and why? • Describe how you have overcome a major obstacle in your life • How would the skills gained from your course/previous employment help our organisation? • Are you applying to other jobs? • Consider topics that are challenging or less comfortable for you! I hope I’m not asked about…
Challenging Questions Technical/role specific • What research skills do you have and how have they been applied? • What analytical techniques have used in a laboratory environment? • What is your favourite product/brand and why? • Tell me about your understanding, and experience, of working with young offenders? Commercial • Describe a company you think is doing well/badly and explain why you think this is so. • What do you think are key qualities for a company to have to be successful? • What significant factors have affected this industry in recent years? (The Sarbanes-Oxley Act is a key factor for accounting and especially audit.) • What do you understand of the role this firm plays in this industry? • Are you applying to other jobs? Abstract • If you were a sandwich filling what would it be and why? • If you could be a cartoon character who would you be and why?
Technical snapshot – Trafigura • Which derivatives could Trafigura use to hedge against scenarios x,y,z in liquid, illiquid markets? • What risks are involved in shipping Angolan oil to US refineries? Technical, commercial questions concerning both financial instruments and a specific market (oil); use of jargon and finance terminology
Sector specific questions... Unilever – questions linked to business function • Finance - Interesting that Unilever has the cash to make a large acquisition in a recessionary environment. How is the Unilever share price doing vs. peers? • Marketing - How has the recessionary background impacted our marketing spend year on year? How do we present value to cash-strapped consumers through our brands? • Customer Development - How has the growth of discount supermarkets changed our business model?
Sector specific questions…Market Research (Ipsos Mori - healthcare) • Competency questions linked to decision making, leadership, teamwork, results, organisation • Why Durham and degree subject • Technical question about statistic based project experience • What do pharma companies need to do to gain market access? • How is the recession affecting healthcare businesses? • Who are the main competitors of Ipsos Mori and why didn’t you apply for a job with them?
Sector specific questions…Professional Services • Give an example of a company that you think could improve its performance. How? • Why Ernst & Young and not Deloitte, KPMG, PWC etc? • Why Business Advisory? • Give an example of a team that you have worked in that did not function. Why and what could you have done? • How do you think you will spend your first year? • What are the main issues concerning Ernst & Young this year? (the challenge of emerging markets or broader issues linked to commerce such as mortgage collapse and consequent effects for business: more reluctant to invest in consultancies and professional services?)
Sector specific questions...Faststream Building relationships: What are the components of a good team? When have you been part of a successful team? What did you contribute to its success? Provide an example of working with someone from a different background? Handling conflict: Provide two examples of working with difficult people. Learning and developing: When have you benefited from feedback? Have you given feedback to someone?
Sector specific questions...Law • Why did you decide to study history and not law; it is a rather strange choice if you knew you wanted to enter the legal profession? - this was designed to trip up those candidates who had just picked a career in law without thinking about it. • Why did you pick Durham University? • Why did you apply to our Manchester office rather than London? • If a firm was relocating from the south to the North, how would Eversheds go about attracting its business in the face of the other competition? • What three things would a client look for in a solicitor? • What three things would a client look for in a law firm? • Why did you decide to apply to Eversheds rather than a 'magic circle' firm? • Why a career in law?
Sector specific questions...Corporate Finance • What are the four steps that define a merger deal? • How would you invest £100,000? • What do you know about…Operational Risk Management/Islamic Finance etc • Why…asset management? • What is your understanding of a ‘hostile takeover’? • What is a hedge fund/derivative/fixed income product?
Question Style Positive questions (self-expression) • Open • Probing • Clarifying Poor Questions • Leading questions • Laden questions • Limited choice • Don’t assume that the interviewer is experienced and don’t be thrown by poorly constructed questions.
Academic Study - Post-Graduate Material from 1st Degree relevant Questions on Thesis or projects Approaches to research Research strengths of Dept How will you fund yourself / course ?
Telephone Interviews • Additional sifting & selecting tool for employers • Prepare in the same way that you would any other interview • Environment • Professional manner – do not treat this as an informal chat • Prompts / notes / copy of CV or App form • Hand gestures / body language / voice
The Interview - Important Points First Impressions Body Language - Body language conveys 65% of what is communicated words convey35% Answering their questions – what you say & how you say it! At the end - Q’s/positive conclusion After the interview - reflection/make a note of Qs asked - feedback/practice
Assessment Centres • These are used by many employers as a stage of selection • They can include individual and group tasks, presentations, psychometric tests, panel interviews, structured discussions, ‘non-assessed’ socialising opportunities • Using a variety of different methods can give an employer a good overall impression of you • Range from ½ - 2 days (employers premises/hotel) • Remain positive: a weakness in one area may be overcome by a strength in another area!
Selection Methods • Aptitude Tests (verbal/numerical/spatial) • Personality Tests (styles of behaviour) • In-Tray or E-Tray Exercises (prioritising/decision-making/time management/information management) • Case Studies (+ interview) – management consultancy/law/finance (often involves analysing a company and making recommendations based on financial data) • Briefing Exercise (Civil Service: 10min pres and 20min Q + A) • Debate – often in Law interviews (globalisation, EU, interest rates) • Voice Mail Exercise • Written exercise e.g. drafting letter or document • Critical Thinking (comprehension, logical reasoning) • Presentations • Role Play • Discussion Groups e.g. Cancer Research • Social Assessment e.g. Barclays Capital
E-tray Exercise Difficult to prepare for but there are useful online resources with which to develop your understanding of what is required: • http://careerweb.leeds.ac.uk/students/applications/e-tray.asp • http://www.pwc.com/uk/eng/car-inexp/student/challenges.html • http://www.faststream.gov.uk/index.asp?txtNavID=140 • http://careers.deloitte.com/united-kingdom/students/csc_general.aspx?CountryContentID=12543 • http://www.studentnet.manchester.ac.uk/careers/downloads/publications/essentialsseriesofhandouts/in-trayexercise/ • http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/interviews/intray.htm
Group discussions Possibly based on a relevant case study or scenario: • give opinions and contribute…you can only be assessed if you are involved • don’t be aggressive • listen to others • value and respect the contributions of others • encourage others to keep to the point but don’t be overly controlling! • remember peoples names • use body language to show interest
Case Studies • Often linked to a group activity but can be individual activities • Basis for interview/presentation • Subject matter not always important but ability to analyse information, prioritise key issues and make recommendations that you can support! • Means of assessing commercial awareness, problem solving, decision making and information management skills • Prior knowledge not required but important to practise and appreciate relevance to business area
Case Studies Useful resources • University of Kent (http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/interviews/Marstairs.htm) • McKinsey & Company (http://www.mckinsey.com/careers/how_do_i_apply/how_to_do_well_in_the_interview/case_interview/practice_cases.aspx) • Bain & Co (http://www.joinbain.com/apply-to-bain/interview-preparation/default.asp) • Boston Consulting (http://www.bcg.com/join_bcg/interview_prep/practice_cases/default.aspx) • Oliver Wyman (http://www.oliverwyman.com/ow/4803.htm) • Ace the Case (http://www.acethecase.com/site/1438552/page/758891) • Capital One (http://www.capitalone.com/careers/hiring/business_case.php?linkid=WWW_Z_Z_Z_CARHIIN_C1_01_T_CARHIBC) • OC&C Strategy Consultants (http://www.occstrategy.co.uk/node/453)
Presentations • Usually 5 -20 mins (shorter if prepared on the day) Preparation key – understand topic, purpose, audience, time, facilities • Logical structure “Tell them what you are going to tell them, tell them, tell them what you have told them” • Interesting but simple • Notes as a prompt, not a script • Practise your delivery – clarity, enthusiasm, timing, change pace • Be prepared for Q & A
Interviews + Assessment Centres Prepare and Present • Be yourself • Confident in the examples that you use for competency questions • Be willing to expand on any responses that you make • Don’t be thrown by the unexpected question • Stay calm • Buy time to think • Remain positive throughout • Show them that you are right for the position and for them! • At the end of the interview think about what impression you want to leave with them: ‘If you can’t think of good questions [to ask them] don’t ask stupid ones.’ Ian Jackson, BT
Tip from an Interviewee “Prepare, think positively, ask for feedback later on and, whatever happens, aim to learn from the experience.”
How can CAS help? Videos/DVDs The interview & assessment centre DVD Case Study DVD Books Great answers to tough interview questions Pub. Kogan Page Mike Bryon, How to pass graduate recruitment tests Pub. Kogan Page Online psychometric tests: MyPotential & Kenexa (http://www.dur.ac.uk/careers/students/generalinformation/interviewsandassessmentcen tres/psychometrictesting) Information Staff will direct you to the available resources and help you to book an appointment with an adviser should you wish to discuss your interview! Useful links on the CAS website (Interviews and Assessments) http://www.dur.ac.uk/careers- advice/students/generalinformation/interviewsandassessmentcentres/
Feedback from other students / alumni (www.dur.ac.uk/careers/students/generalinformation/interviewsandassessmentcentres/interviews/itsgoodtoshare)
Events for your diary • Practise assessment centre exercises (group activity & presentation) • CV & Application clinics can be used to discuss upcoming interviews • Mock interviews, assessment centre workshops, skills sessions delivered by employers • Employer events throughout Epiphany term...keep checking the events diary (Careers Advisory Service Online - https://careers.dur.ac.uk) and weekly emailed events bulletin
Useful websites • www.prospects.ac.uk • http://targetjobs.co.uk/general-advice/assessment-centres.aspx • http://targetjobs.co.uk/general-advice/interview-techniques.aspx • http://www.get.hobsons.co.uk/advice/interviews • www.shldirect.com • www.psychtesting.org.uk • www.markparkinson.co.uk/psychometric_links.htm • http://practicetests.cubiks.com/ • http://graduates.deloitte.co.uk/index.cfm?p_id=113 • http://www.faststream.gov.uk/index.asp?txtNavID=140 Please also refer to the resources in the Careers Centre!
Careers Advisory Service 49 New Elvet Open 10am – 5pm Tel 0191 334 1437/1424 www.durham.ac.uk/careers- advice
Any Questions? firstname.lastname@example.org