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Federal Law “ON USE OF THE ATOMIC ENERGY” Federal Law “ON RADIATION SAFETY OF THE POPULATION” Law of Russian Federation “ON CONSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT” Some assumptions of other legislative acts, likely to influence the establishment of legal relations in the field of atomic energy.

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Main assumptions

Federal Law

“ON USE OF THE ATOMIC ENERGY”

Federal Law

“ON RADIATION SAFETY OF THE POPULATION”

Law of Russian Federation

“ON CONSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT”

Some assumptions of other legislative acts, likely to influence the establishment of legal relations in the field of atomic energy

MAIN ASSUMPTIONS

JCAT Ch 3


Law implementation
LAW IMPLEMENTATION

OBJECTS:

  • nuclear installations

  • radiation sources

  • sites of storage of nuclear materials & radioactive substances

  • repositories of radioactive waste and other nuclear and radiation-hazardous material

    at all stages of life cycle, including decommissioning

    FEDERAL PROPRIETY:

    all nuclear installations, having no defense objectives, incl.NPP


Requirements to the exploiting organisations

are fully responsible for the safety of nuclear installations, including decommissioning, radioactive wastes and nuclear material management

have to possess an appropriate power, material and other resources, including financial ones, which are sufficient for the realization of their functions

are obliged to create a special fund for the decommissioningof NPP units

any activity in the field of atomic energy has to be carried out only with a license for rights to carry out appropriate works in the field of atomic energy

REQUIREMENTS TO THE EXPLOITING ORGANISATIONS


Federal law on radiation safety of the population
FEDERAL LAW “ON RADIATION SAFETY OF THE POPULATION” installations

ENTERED IN FORCE IN 1995

states:

  • lawful fundamentals for the provision of radiation safetyfor the population with a view to preserve public health.

    determines:

  • main principles of radiation safety provision

  • main sanitary norms of exposure (allowable doses)

  • measures required for radiation safety provision


Principles of radiation safety provision
PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION SAFETY PROVISION installations

  • the principle of norm

    not-exceeding the permissible limits of individual irradiation doses of citizens from all the sources of ionizing radiation

  • the principle of approval

    prohibition of all types of activity on use of ionizing radiation, at which the resulted advantage for individuals and society does not exceed the risk of possible damage due to exposure above the natural radiation pool

  • the principle of optimization

    maintaining individual irradiation doses and number of exposed persons at a level as low as possible while using any source of ionizing radiation, taking into account economical and social factors


Law about conservation of the environment 19 12 1991 ed 20 12 2001
LAW “ABOUT CONSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT” installations/19.12.1991/ed.20.12.2001

general ecological requirements during

  • the arrangement, technical-economical justification and planning of

    the projects

  • the creation, reconstruction and start up of enterprises, installations and other objects, including NPP

  • their decommissioning

    requirements

  • conservation of natural environment, regarding the near and far ecological, economical, demographical and moral consequences of the activity.

  • state expertise, as well as the public and ecological ones if needed for the technical-economical justification of all projects on activity in the field of atomic energy and projects themselves

  • projects are not submitted to approval if they do not meet ecological requirements. The works on their realization have not to be funded.

    obligation

    of full compensation for the damage, caused by ecological infringement

    of the law, as well as procedure and scale of such compensation.


Main norm document requirements
MAIN NORM DOCUMENT REQUIREMENTS installations

STATE OF THE ART

  • norms and rules largely surpasses the system of norms of the former USSR, where no law about use of atomic energy existed

  • norms and rules in force are mainly based on the statements of normative documents adopted in nuclear-power complexes of the former USSR

  • some statements of these documents need to be revised in a full accordance with the Federal Laws of the Russian Federation.

  • no complete norm base

  • still no possession a real full-scale practical experience concerns

    MAIN STATEMENTS ARE BASED ON:

  • experience in repairing and dismantling, accumulated on operated NPP units, industrial, research and transport nuclear reactors

  • results of scientific research on nuclear installations which were shut down.


Basic norms and guiding documents 01 09 2000
BASIC NORMS AND GUIDING DOCUMENTS installations(01.09.2000)

MAIN GUIDING DOCUMENTS

  • The main statements on provision of safety of Nuclear Power Plants (OPB-88/97)

  • The regulations on provision of safety during decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plant unit” (NP-012-99)

    NORM DOCUMENTS REQUIREMENTS

  • decommissioning of each NPP unit has to be taken into account, already during its projecting and exploitation, as well as during technical maintenance and repairs.

  • during 5 years prior the end of a NPP unit planned operation period, the exploiting organization has to develop, justify and submit the decommissioning Program to the Gosatomnadzor of Russia (State Atomic Control Body).

  • prior to NPP unit decommissioning, a complex inspection has to be done by the commission appointed by the exploiting organization. Based on the results of the inspection, the exploiting organization has to develop a NPP unit decommissioning project and to prepare a report on the justification of decommissioning safety.


Requirements opb 88 97 and np 012 99
REQUIREMENTS OPB-88/97 AND NP-012-99 installations

  • exploiting organization has to obtain the license from the Gosatomnadzor of Russia

  • the NPP unit decommissioning project developed has to pass through ecological (state and public) expertise

  • if the conditions of provision the NPP unit decommissioning safety do not correspond to the admitted normative limits and do not provide ecological safety, decommissioning is not allowed and the license on this type of activity is not issued

  • the estimation of the impact on the environment during the realization of the project has to be included in the set of documents of the NPP unit decommissioning project


Remarks
REMARKS installations

  • different specific aspects of NPP units decommissioning, including the problems of safety provision, are not yet concretized

  • the requirement of a justification of decommissioning duration in case of postponed dismantling is still absent for the stage of long-term conservation of reactor under control.

  • the possibility of NPP units decommissioning is not taken into consideration in case of immediate dismantling.

  • the existing requirements do not account for the difference of design peculiarities of different types of reactors, exploited in Russia. Such factors as the NPP multi-units (line with 2 units) are not taken into account. As a result the locations of some systems and the building are common for units of one line.


Remarks1
REMARKS installations

  • conception, criteria and requirements are not elaborated in Russia for the management and re-use of low-level radioactive material (limited and unlimited use) generated in a significant amount during NPP units decommissioning

  • the absence of suitable repositories or burials for radioactive waste of NPP enforces to plan long-term storage on NPP sites. Nevertheless no requirements are still determined for organization with storage site and for procedures of long-term storage of radioactive waste on NPP sites

  • no conception of management of irradiated graphite has been formulated so far for decommissioning of uranium-graphite nuclear reactors


Peculiarities of obtaining a license for decommissioning
PECULIARITIES OF OBTAINING A LICENSE FOR DECOMMISSIONING installations

STATEMENT ON LICENSING OF ACTIVITY IN THE

FIELD OF ATOMIC ENERGY, INCLUDING

DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS

17.07.1977

general requirements are established to the:

  • order of application submission

  • procedure of its evaluation drawing up

  • decision on issue of licenses on different types of activities in the field of atomic energy


Activities which require the license
ACTIVITIES WHICH REQUIRE THE LICENSE installations

  • Creation, start up of exploitation, exploitation, decommissioning of nuclear installations, radiation sources and sites of storage of nuclear materials and RAW

  • Nuclear materials and radioactive substances management

  • RAW (including radioactive materials of secondary use) management during storage, treatment, transportation and disposal

  • Carrying out of scientific-research and experimental-design works with use of atomic energy and/or use of nuclear materials and radioactive substances

  • Realization of safety exploitation and technological processes, provision of branch (production) safety control

  • Projecting and construction of nuclear installations, radiation sources and sites for storage of nuclear materials and RAW

  • Construction and creation of equipment for nuclear installations, radiation sources and sites for storage of nuclear materials and RAW

  • Expertise on projecting (including project on decommissioning of nuclear installations) and other materials and documentation with a goal to determine the level of safety of nuclear installations, radiation sources and sites for storage of nuclear materials and RAW


Documents to be submitted to gosatomnadzor for licence
DOCUMENTS TO BE SUBMITTED TO GOSATOMNADZOR FOR LICENCE installations

  • The decision of the Government of the Russian Federation about decommissioning of NPP

  • The application with indication of organization-lawful form of legal entity, juridical address, kind of activity and object of its implementation

  • The document, which confirms the agreement on this kind of activity between the executive authority of subject of the Russian Federation and the appropriate authority of the local self-government, on whose territory the activity is supposed to be realized

  • The conclusion of state ecological expertise

  • The set of documents, which justify the application


Stages of procedure
STAGES OF PROCEDURE installations

  • The application submitted to the Gosatomnadzor of Russia is accepted for consideration or declined, following the results of a preliminary control.

  • During this control, the nomenclature of the submitted document is checked, including the fulfillment of established rules of its drawing up.

  • During the process of consideration of the application the Gosatomnadzor of Russia carries out, on its own decision, the inspection of NPP unit to be decommissioned, expertizes the safety justification, contacts the applicant about possible remarks and disadvantages.

  • The decision about the delivery or deny of delivery of the license depends on the chiefs of the Gosatomnadzor of Russia on the base of expert conclusion and of results of inspection.


Set of documents which justify the application
SET OF DOCUMENTS WHICH JUSTIFY THE APPLICATION installations

determined by requirements RD-04-27-2000

  • The Program of decommissioning of NPP unit

    2. The report on the results of complex (radiation and

    engineering) inspection of the NPP unit

    3. The report on justification of safety during decommissioning

    of the NPP unit

    4. The Program and graphic of works on dismantling of

    equipment, systems and protective building constructions.

    5. The Program of quality provision during decommissioning

    of the NPP unit.

    6. The instruction on liquidation of accidents on the NPP unit

    under decommissioning.

    7. The plan of measures on safety of personnel in the case of

    accident on the NPP unit during its decommissioning


Set of documents which justify the application1
SET OF DOCUMENTS WHICH JUSTIFY THE APPLICATION installations

8. The instructions on exploitation of equipment and systems which take into account the stages of dismantling of equipment and system, following the dismantling program

9. The NPP unit decommissioning project material, following this list, has to be agreed with Gosatomnadzor of Russia

10. The instructions on accounting and control of radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of NPP unit

11. The inquiry about changing in the systems of physical safety dealing with decommissioning.

12. The Act about carrying out of physical inventory of nuclear materials on zones of balance of materials, which is the last on the moment of submission of application.

13. The document which confirms the absence of nuclear materials on NPP unit with indication of time of nuclear materials exportation.