What to know • How did the ideas of John Locke and Thomas Paine influence Jefferson’s writings in the Declaration of Independence? • How did the Declaration of Independence become a road map for the new republic as it extended the franchise, provided for equality of opportunity, and guaranteed “unalienable rights”? • What differences existed among Americans concerning separation from Great Britain? • What factors contributed to the victory of the American rebels?
Thomas Paine • Author of “Common Sense”
Common Sense • Most widely read pamphlet in America • Highlights the wrongs of England • Promotes Revolution
Thomas Paine Why did Thomas Paine title his Pamphlet “Common Sense”?
Until an independence is declared the continent will feel itself like a man who continues putting off some unpleasant business from day to day, yet knows it must be done, hates to set about it, wishes it over, and is continually haunted with the thoughts of its necessity.Thomas Paine- Common Sense, 1776
Propaganda Became very popular and helped to spread the revolutionary spirit throughout the colonies Major Arguments It is ridiculous for an island to rule a continent, especially one that is so far away Remaining a part of Britain will drag America into European wars, hurting the trade and economy of America Even if Britain was originally the "mother country" of America, no true mother would harm her children so deplorably. Common Sense that we should revolt and be independent
American Independence • The Influence of the Enlightenment • Colonial leaders push for independence, rely on Enlightenment ideas • Declaration of Independence—document justifying colonial rebellion • Leader Thomas Jefferson writes Declaration, uses ideas of John Locke
Declaration of Independence • Main author: Thomas Jefferson • 3 Parts: Preamble, grievances, formal declaration
Declaration of Independence • Goal: Tell colonists and other countries of our plans • Gain support from more colonists and countries (France and Spain)
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed”
“ That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. ”
The Declaration of Independence • Written by Thomas Jefferson • Ratified on July 4, 1776 • A letter justifying its reasons for revolting (break up letter) • Borrows from ideas of John Locke and Thomas Paine • Unalienable rights = Natural rights = rights that everyone are born with and gov’t cannot take away • People have right to alter, abolish, revolt against a government that does not protect their rights • Contains List of Grievances (complaints) • Does not establish a government • Three concepts: All men created equal, inalienable rights, purpose of government.
3 1 2 4
Concepts of the Declaration • John Locke • British philosopher • Two Treatises on Government
Natural Rights • Life, Liberty, Property • Rulers cannot take these rights away
Social Contract • People = Power • People create government • protect their rights
Social Contract If rights are not protected…….. …….People should break their contract
Key Principles of Declaration of Independence • The key principles of the Declaration of Independence increased political, social, and economic participation in the American experience over a period of time. • Political participation (equality) • Extending the franchise • Upholding due process of law • Providing free public education • 2. Social participation (liberty) • Abolishing slavery • Extending civil rights to women and other groups • 3. Economic participation (pursuit of happiness) • Regulating the free enterprise system • Promoting economic opportunity • Protecting property rights
Colonies: 2.5 million citizens Weak gov’t & navy Little money or weapons Colonial jealousy Strong leaders Defensive war France England: 7.5 million citizens Strong navy Large, well equipped army Loyalists Weak military leaders Distance France Edge of War
Essential Knowledge • The beginning of the American Revolution Resistance to British rule in the colonies mounted, leading to war: • The Boston Tea Party occurred. • The First Continental Congress was called, to which all of the colonies except Georgia sent representatives – the first time most of the colonies had acted together. • The Boston Massacre took place when British troops fired on anti-British demonstrators. • War began when the “Minutemen” in Massachusetts fought a brief skirmish with British troops at Lexington and Concord.
Choosing Sides • Loyalists: People who remained loyal to the King and British. Also called Tories.
Choosing Sides • Patriots: People who supported the independence movement • Risked everything for the cause
Fort Ticonderoga Ethan Allen & Green Mountain Boys Benedict Arnold Bunker Hill Bloodiest battle of war “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes.” Casualties Britain: 1,054 Rebels: 400 American victory despite abandoning hill Early Battles
The War Early Defeats: British capture major cities: New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Charleston Washington retreats “live to fight another day”
Battle of Trenton Early Patriot Victory
Trenton/ Princeton; Christmas, 1776 • Washington crossed the Delaware River and led a surprise attack on the Hessian soldiers who were mercenaries working for the British • All were captured or killed
Valley Forge • Washington's forces spent the winter outside Philadelphia • It was a brutally cold winter and the men were under supplied • There were many casualties, but Washington's ability to keep up American hopes saved the effort!
Valley Forge Washington and troops survive long, cold winter Troops trained by General Von Steuben. Survival & training leads to increased morale
Battle of Saratoga 10/17/1777 • Turning point of war • France give full support to colonists
French Support • The support of the French from the beginning was not in the open. They wanted to make sure we had a chance to win first. • Marquis de Lafayette: Great supporter of the American cause
French Support • Diplomatic • Benjamin Franklin negotiated a Treaty of Alliance with France (French support) who wanted revenge • The war did not have popular support in Great Britain. • Military • George Washington, general of the American army, avoided any situation that threatened the destruction of his army, and his leadership kept the army together when defeat seemed inevitable. • Americans benefited from the presence of the French army and navy at the Battle of Yorktown, which ended the war with an American victory.
Franco-American Alliance • (1778): Recognize American efforts toward independence
Yorktown (1781) • Last major battle of the war • French naval blockade • Washington’s army, with French support, forced General Cornwallis to surrender
Yorktown • British General Lord Cornwallis was trapped between Washington's forces and the French Fleet in Virginia • Cornwallis surrendered during this siege, and it proved to be the final battle in the war.
Answer Question • What differences existed among Americans concerning separation from Great Britain?
Differences Among Americans • The colonists were divided into three main groups during the Revolution: • Patriots • Believed in complete independence from Britain • Inspired by the ideas of Locke and Paine and the words of Virginian Patrick Henry (“Give me liberty, or give me death!”) • Provided the troops for the American Army, led by Virginian George Washington • Loyalists (Tories) • Remained loyal to Britain because of cultural and economic ties • Believed that taxation of the colonies was justified to pay for British troops to protect American settlers from Indian attacks • Neutrals • The many colonists who tried to stay as uninvolved in the war as possible
Americans Win Independence • Success for the Colonists • Despite British military might, colonists have advantages: • Motivating cause of freedom • French assistance • War’s expense for Britain • British surrender at Yorktown in 1781; colonists win the war
Treaty of Paris (1783) • Britain formally recognized US independence • US stretched west to the Mississippi River, north to the Great Lakes, south to Florida
American concessions • Loyalists to be forgiven • Loyalist property to be restored • America to pay off British debt
Women in the war • Greater responsibilities • Manage farms and businesses while men away • Travel with army as cooks and nurses
Mary Pitcher When Mary’s husband was killed, she stepped in to take his place.
Recognition • Several slides come from the Power Point of bthone. US History. Smithtown, NY • Some have been changed slightly, but slides, 4, 5,6,10,11, 12, and 14 came from Mr. Thone’s PPT.