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Chapter 14 - Intelligence Operations. Why did the Intelligence Fail to Precipitate Appropriate Action?. Pearl Harbor - 1941 - The Japanese had already bombed bases farther West in the Pacific. Why didn't we move the ships out of the harbor? Bay of Pigs

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why did the intelligence fail to precipitate appropriate action
Why did the Intelligence Fail to Precipitate Appropriate Action?
  • Pearl Harbor - 1941 - The Japanese had already bombed bases farther West in the Pacific.
    • Why didn't we move the ships out of the harbor?
  • Bay of Pigs
    • 4 American pilots and over 100 Cuban invaders were killed in battle | 1,400 Cuban invaders felt betrayed by their sponsor | One U.S. senator lied to the United Nations | One U.S. president was embarrassed in front of the world April 1961
  • Iran hostage crisis
    • Should the CIA have figured out that letting the Shah of Iran in was going to be trouble?
    • Should they have emptied the embassy?
  • Have we anticipated any major changes?
  • Is it failure of basic information? Analysis? Strategic judgment?
secrecy policy
Secrecy Policy
  • What can the government keep secret and how far can it go to do it?
  • What can the government do to collect intelligence, both foreign and domestic?
  • How far can the government go with covert operations as a tool of foreign policy?
  • What is the cost to domestic society as we increase surveillance of citizens?
  • Is it a good idea to move from clearly separated foreign/domestic and national/local surveillance and policing to an integrated national surveillance and policing system?
keeping secrets
Keeping Secrets
  • Did the founders anticipate that there would be government secrets?
  • What about the constitutional convention itself?
  • What did they think of legislative history?
  • Was Congress allowed to keep its proceedings secret?
  • What was the practice for executive branch agencies until FOIA?
  • Why is congressional reporting a problem for secrecy?
  • Why did Ford object to broadening reporting requirements?
  • What can you do to a congressman who leaks info?
  • What if Berkley elects a communist to Congress?
what are the ints
What are the INTs?
  • human intelligence or espionage (HUMINT)
  • imagery intelligence (IMINT)
  • signals intelligence (SIGINT) and
  • measurement and signatures intelligence (MASINT)
  • Except for open-source intelligence (OSINT), each of the INTs has a self-contained process, from collection to delivery.
the nature of intelligence
The Nature of Intelligence
  • What is the stovepipe problem?
  • What is the raw material of intelligence?
  • What is the NSA getting when it scans a zillion phone calls?
  • What do covert agents get in most cases?
  • Why is it impossible to separate analysis from intelligence?
  • Why is it impossible to separate politics and bias from analysis?
  • What are the pros and cons of a single intelligence service in terms of analysis?
origin of the cia
Origin of the CIA
  • What did the president do for intelligence before World War II?
  • Was there a specific foreign intelligence service?
  • What was the WWII agency that became the CIA?
  • Why is the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949 seen as ratifying clandestine intelligence gathering?
  • What does the NSA do?
federal state local distinctions
Federal, State, Local Distinctions
  • How is surveillance and policing done at the state and local level?
  • Did all of these levels communicate effectively?
  • Why could this be a problem?
  • Why was this division seen as important to protecting liberty?
  • Why do we elect sheriffs and judges, when their jobs call for specific skills that elections do not measure well?
after 9 11
After 9/11
  • What did the 9/11 commission recommend?
  • Does this overturn the traditional division between domestic and international intelligence?
  • Historically, who did national domestic surveillance?
  • Who did foreign?
  • Why were they divided?
  • What are the risks of having a single agency covering everything from foreign to local, under a single executive branch secretary?
director of national intelligence
Director of National Intelligence
  • What is the Director of National Intelligence added after 9/11?
  • Who does Director of National Intelligence provide intelligence to?
  • What sources of intelligence does the Director of National Intelligence have access to?
  • What is the relationship between the DNI and heads of the NSA and the CIA?
  • What major source of info is missing from this description?
  • What threat does consolidation intelligence pose?
protecting civil liberties
Protecting Civil Liberties
  • What is the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board?
  • Who does it depend on for its powers?
  • Why is this a problem?
paying for the intelligence services
Paying for the Intelligence Services
  • What are the Political and Secrecy Issues in the Intelligence Budget?
  • Why not give the agencies a blank check?
  • Why is congressional oversight problematic?
what are the three priorities of the national security strategy as stated in 2005
What are the Three Priorities of the National Security Strategy as stated in 2005?
  • The top two ‘‘mission objectives’’ identified in the Strategy are countering terrorism and halting weapons proliferation.
  • The third listed objective is to ‘‘bolster the growth of democracy’’ by having ‘‘collectors, analysts and operators’’ within the intelligence agencies seek to ‘‘forge relationships with new and incipient democracies’’ in order to help ‘‘strengthen the rule of law and ward off threats to representative government.’’
  • Why is the 3rd one problematic as a strategy?