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LOGIC 102 lesson 05. Sh. Safdar Razi. The Conditional Syllogism. Arabic: al-qadiyaa al-shartiyya Definition: Is composed of two predicative/propositional statements or three parts: The first part (al-muqadama) The second part (al-taalie) The connector (al-raabitta/nisba)

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Logic 102 lesson 05

LOGIC 102lesson 05

Sh. Safdar Razi


The conditional syllogism
The Conditional Syllogism

  • Arabic:al-qadiyaa al-shartiyya

  • Definition:

    • Is composed of two predicative/propositional statements or three parts:

      • The first part (al-muqadama)

      • The second part (al-taalie)

      • The connector (al-raabitta/nisba)

        • This is not like the predicative syllogism, in that the nisba here is not used to prove/affirm the predicative to the subject.

        • Instead it connects the two statements.


Notes
Notes:

  • In the predicative syllogism we divided the types of subjects with respect to the perspectives.

  • However, since we do not have a subject and its predicate here, instead we have two syllogisms that either are:

    • Associative (talaazum)

    • Dissociative (ta’aanud)


Types of conditional
Types of Conditional

  • Therefore, with respect to the time and condition, the connection or disconnection between the two statements of the syllogism is of three types:

    • Personal (shakhsiyya)

    • Unattended (muhmalla)

    • Specific (mahsoora):

      a. Total (kulliya)b. Some (juz’iyya)


1 personal
1. Personal

  • Arabic: shakhsiyya

  • Definition:

    • The connection or disconnection is in a specific time or state.

  • Example:

    • If Ali comes angry, I will not greet him.

    • If Ali comes, he will be either happy or sad.


2 unattended
2. Unattended

  • Arabic: muhmalla

  • Definition:

    • The connection or disconnection is in an unspecified time or state.

  • Example:

    • If the water is kurr, it will not become unpurified.

    • If the impurity touches the water, it either becomes pure or impure.


3 specific
3. Specific

  • Arabic: mahsoora

  • Definition:

    • The connection or disconnection includes all or some times or states.

    • Two types:

      • All (kullie)

      • Some (juz’ee)


A specific all
a. Specific All

  • Arabic: kullie

  • Tools: “all” or “always” or “every”

  • Example:

    • If a nation is always mindful of technology, it will progress.

    • Every number is either odd or even.


B specific some
b. Specific Some

  • Arabic: juz’ee

  • Tools: “some” or “sometimes” or “not always”

  • Example:

    • If a nation is not always mindful of technology, it will not progress.

    • Some men are male or female.