BGS History GCSE Revision Tests Galen
1) During which Empire was Galen a very important doctor? The Roman Empire
3) Where in his early life did he learn new medical skills? (2 answers) 1) Alexandria 2) He was a doctor at a gladiator training school. Both taught him a lot about ANATOMY (the structure of the human body).
3) Did he accept the Theory of the Four Humours? YES • Galen accepted most of the ideas of Hippocrates and the Greek doctors – he was a Greek doctor himself. • However, he developed many of his own ideas as well.
4) Which new theory or treatment did he develop from it? TREATMENT OF THE OPPOSITES T REATMENT O F T HE O PPOSITES
5) How did this theory or treatment work? Explain the logic of it, and give a specific example of a cure based on it. • If you were unwell it was because you had too much of a certain humour. • The way to treat it was with something opposite to it. • For example if you had a cold, and were full of phlegm you would sniff some hot pepper to help you sneeze.
6) Name another of his key ideas or discoveries. • BRAIN CONTROLS THE BODY • Through dissecting a live pig he proved that the brain controlled the body. Only when he cut one particular nerve did the pig stop squealing. • PERFECT DESIGN Claimed that the Creator fitted all organs together perfectly.
7) For how long did his ideas dominate medicine? 1500 years • All the way through Roman times, throughout the Middle Ages and right up to the Renaissance (began in 1500).
8) Give two reasons why his ideas lasted so long. • 1) CHRISTIAN CHURCH ACCEPTED HIS IDEAS Because he spoke about “the Creator” the Church agreed with him. In the Middle Ages no-one disagreed with the Church. This was called HERESY, and you could be killed for it. • 2) HIS IDEAS MADE SENSE / WERE LOGICAL There was some logic to the 4 Humours (which he accepted), and the Treatment of the Opposites (which he developed). They matched the 4 seasons of the natural world, and often seemed to work.