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Diagnosis & treatment of STIs. Over 30 different organisms can cause STIs Many infections have similar symptoms & signs Accurate treatment requires accurate diagnosis For most STIs, accurate diagnosis requires laboratory tests In developing countries, laboratory tests are often not available.

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diagnosis treatment of stis
Diagnosis & treatment of STIs
  • Over 30 different organisms can cause STIs
  • Many infections have similar symptoms & signs
  • Accurate treatment requires accurate diagnosis
  • For most STIs, accurate diagnosis requires laboratory tests
  • In developing countries, laboratory tests are often not available
diagnosis treatment of stis2
Diagnosis & treatment of STIs

STI diagnosis where lab tests not available:

the syndromic approach

to STI case management

the syndromic approach
The syndromic approach
  • Developed by WHO
  • Does not require laboratory tests
  • Tested in many countries since 1970’s
  • Reviewed, adapted & improved many times
the syndromic approach4
The syndromic approach
  • STIs grouped into 7 main categories, according to symptoms and signs
  • Each category is called a “syndrome”
  • Each syndrome easily recognized on history & examination
  • Treatment covers the most common organisms potentially responsible for the syndrome
the syndromic approach to stis
The syndromic approach to STIs

Principles of syndromic management:

  • Recognize the syndrome
  • The syndrome could be caused by one or more of a number of organisms
  • Treat with a combination of drugs
  • Drugs should cover the common organisms potentially responsible for the syndrome
  • Organisms must be sensitive to the drugs
syndromic approach advantages
Syndromic approach - advantages
  • No laboratory tests needed:
    • reduces costs
    • patient does not have to wait for results
  • Works well for urethral discharge & genital ulcers
  • Simple to use
  • Can be used at all levels of the health system
  • Promotes standardization
  • Facilitates training
syndromic approach challenges
Syndromic approach - challenges
  • Many STIs are asymptomatic
  • Vaginal discharge is not necessarily the result of an STI
  • Vaginitis vs cervicitis - overtreat vs undertreat
  • Overuse of drugs: costs, side effects, resistance
  • Lack of acceptance by clinicians
the syndromic approach to stis17
The syndromic approach to STIs

In spite of its limitations,

the syndromic approach is at present

the most realistic option for

the management of STIs in resource-poor settings.

stis in conflict settings
STIs in conflict settings

Syndromic approach included in:

  • MISP
  • Sphere
  • IASC Guidelines for HIV/AIDS Interventions in Emergency Settings
addressing the problem of stis
Addressing the problem of STIs
  • STIs are a common health problem
  • STIs have serious consequences
  • The management of STIs is challenging

SO……..

  • What can individuals do about STIs?
  • What can health services do about STIs?
what can individuals do to reduce the spread of stis
What can individuals do to reduce the spread of STIs?

1. Protect yourself - ABC

2. Prevent transmission to partners:

- get STIs treated without delay

- use condoms or abstain until STI is cured

- urge partners to get treatment