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Democracy Survives the Persian War: Stoa of Athenians, Delphi, 479. The Athenians dedicated the stoa, and the arm[s a]nd the ships’ prows which they took from the ene[mies]. Democracy in Action: First Response. 479/8: Athenians rebuild their walls. Themistoklean Wall, 479 BCE.
The Athenians dedicated the stoa, and the arm[s a]nd the ships’ prows which they took from the ene[mies].
479/8: Athenians rebuild their walls
Traces of the Themistoklean Walls in the Kerameikos
Athens & Attica
Amphipolis in Thrace
Hellespont, Propontis, Black Sea
Assessment & payment:
Men; ships or phoros
477-471: First activities in the northern Aegean by Kimon son of Miltiades:
“No one humbled the Great King [Xerxes] more than Kimon. He gave him no rest when he had been driven from Greece, but followed hard on his heels before the barbarian could recover his breath and make a stand” (Plutarch Life of Kimon 12).
471: Karystos on Euboea
469-7: Karia, Lykia, southern Asia Minor
472: Themistokles ostracized and dies in … Persia!
Reality Bites: the tragic stage, Aeschylus andThe Persians
At once with a united sweep and rush of oars
on order they stuck the deep water of the sea.
Swiftly all they became visible to see.
At first the right wing in good battle order
led the array but then the whole fleet
began the attack and at the same time could be heard
a great cry: "Children of the Hellenes, advance,
and set free your fatherland. Set free
your children, your wives, the temples of your gods
and ancestors' tombs. The struggle is for them all.“
From us a confused babble of the Persian tongue
rose up in reply and the time of planning was over.
At once ship against ship its bronze ram
struck. A ship of the Hellenes began
the attack and broke off completely the beak
of a Phoenician ship: ship rushed against ship.
O name of Salamis, most hateful to hear!
O my! How I groan, remembering Athens!
Ghost of Darius
For hubris, flowering to maturity, produces a blossom
of Atê, whence one reaps a harvest laden with tears.
470: Naxosloss of fleet,walls; highertribute
465-3: Thasosloss of fleet,walls; highertribute
465-459: Earthquake at Sparta: helot revolt; siege of Ithome
463/2: Kimon offers help to Sparta
463/2: Ephialtes reforms the Areopagus
462/1: Perikles institutes jury pay
462/1: Ephialtes assassinated
462/1: Kimon ostracized
460-450: Athens and her allies wage war with Sparta and her allies
(“First Peloponnesian War”)
457: Archonship open to zeugitai
454: Treasury of the Delian League transferred to Athens from Delos
451: Pericles oversees passage of the Citizenship Law: citizens must be of two Athenian parents
449: Peace (of Kallias) with Persia
449: Congress Decree, and beginning of Periclean building program in Athens
446/5: Thirty Years’ Peace with Sparta
446/5: Standards decree – coinage, measures, weights standardized throughout the Empire