CHAPTER 15. Population, Urbanization, and the Environment. Key Topics. 15-1 Population Dynamics 15-2 Urbanization 15-3 Environmental Issues. Population Dynamics. Population Dynamics. Demography : the scientific study of human populations
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Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
15-1 Population Dynamics
15-3 Environmental Issues
Demography: the scientific study of human populations
Examines size, composition, distribution of populations
Looks at changes and causes of changes in populations
Population: a group of people who share a geographic territory
Vary in size from a small town to the planet
Grown rapidly since 1800
Reached 1 billion in 1804
6.5 billion by 2005
Expected to reach 9.4 billion by 2050
Fertility: the number of babies born during a specific period in a particular society
Crude birth rate: the number of live births per 1,000 population in a given year
In 2011 the CBR was 20 worldwide, 36 for Africa, and 13 for the U.S.
Birth rates vary within a country.
In the U.S., birth rates are lower for the more affluent and those with more education.
Migration: the movement of people into or out of a specific geographic area
Push factors: encourage people to leave
Pull factors: attract people to new area
Identify the type of migration and push or pull factors.
Josh’s family moved from Louisiana to Texas after Hurricane Katrina.
After a beef plant closed in Iowa, a family moved to Minnesota in search of work.
A family moved from Afghanistan to France to escape the war.
Population pyramid: a visual representation of the age and sex structure of a population at a given point in time
Allows demographers to predict future needs of a population
Malthusian theory: the belief that the population is growing faster than the food supply needed to sustain it (Thomas Malthus 1798)
Neo-Mathusians agree that the world population is exploding beyond food supplies.
Earth has become a dying planet with increasing population and pollution.
Number of hungry people in the world increased to 1.02 billion in 2009.
Demographic transition theory: maintains the population growth is kept in check and stabilizes as countries experience economic development.
Development involves industrialization, modernization, technological advancements, and urbanization.
Stages in the demographic transition:
1—Preindustrial: high birth rates and high death rates
2—Early industrialization: high birth rates and lower death rates (population growth)
3—Advanced industrialization: lower birth rates and death rates (lower growth rate)
4—Postindustrial: low birth and death rates (stability or decrease in population)
Zero population growth: each woman has no more than two children resulting in a stable population.
Many nations are now experiencing zero population growth.
City: a geographic area where a large number of people live relatively permanently and make a living through nonagricultural activities
Urbanization: the movement of people from rural areas to cities
The Industrial Revolution created a surge in urbanization as people moved to cities in search of jobs and improved living conditions.
In 2008, a majority of the world’s population lived in urban areas for the first time in history.
Megacities: metropolitan areas with at least 10 million inhabitants
Becoming more common
By 2025, there will be 37 megacities in the world with 3 in the U.S.
In U.S., the fastest growing counties are near metropolitan areas.
Suburbanization: movement from cities to the areas surrounding them.
More than 60% of Americans reside in suburbs.
Edge cities: business centers that are within or close to suburban residential areas
Exurbs: areas of new development beyond suburbs on the fringe of urbanized areas
Gentrification: the process of buying and renovating houses and stores by middle-class and affluent people in downtown urban neighborhoods
Revitalizes urban areas and augments taxes
Results in displacement of low-income people and small business
Racial segregation: as suburbs expanded, low-income African Americans were left in the central cities with few housing and employment choices
Decreasing but average black or Latino household lives in a poorer neighborhood
Suburbs are becoming “ethnoburbs.”
Sociological explanations of urbanization:
How and why do cities change?
How do the changes affect populations?
Functionalists developed theories of urban ecology: the study of the relationships between people and their urban environment
Theories analyzed the growth of cities into different patterns.
Concentric zone: city grows outward in a series of rings
Sector theory: pie-shaped wedges radiate from central business district
Multi-nuclei: city contains multiple centers
Peripheral: suburbs and edge cities develop through highway development
Conflict theory: heavily influenced new urban sociology
Economic and political factors determine urban growth or decline.
Urban changes are influenced by the dominant social class and powerful capitalists.
Urban space is a commodity to be bought and sold.
Feminist scholars emphasize gender-related constraints.
Developers ignored women’s changing roles.
Poor women and minorities have the least access to decent housing.
Safe public transportation and other public areas are limited.
Symbolic interactionistsare interested in the impact of urban life on its residents.
Urbanism is a way of life characterized by tolerance of different lifestyles but superficial interaction and social isolation.
Recent studies find satisfying lives for urbanites.
Identify the theoretical perspective:
People create suburbs to enhance their quality of life.
Financial institutions determine the shape of cities.
Urbanites are more socially isolated than those in rural areas.
Ecosystem: involves a physical environment and all forms of life living in relation to one another
Environmental problems threaten our ecosystem.
Access to clean water:
More than 1 billion people do not have clean water.
Over 3 million children die every year because of diarrheal diseases.
Water-related diseases cause 50% of illnesses and deaths.
Threats to water supply:
Threats to water supply:
Privatization: transferring assets or operations of public water systems into private hands
Bottled water depletes local water sources and creates plastic water garbage.
Threats to the water supply:
The most common sources of air pollution are:
Winds blowing contaminants to other areas
Government policies including lack of enforcement of pollution law
Global warming: increased temperature of the earth’s atmosphere
The greenhouse effect: heating of the earth’s temperature due to atmospheric gases
Climate change: change of overall temperatures and water conditions over time
Increases in ocean acidity
Loss of livelihoods
Coastal erosion and loss of homes
Floods and droughts
Sustainable development: economic activities that meet the needs of the present without threatening the environmental legacy of future generations
Describe the dynamics of population.
What are the concerns regarding changing population?
Describe the urbanization trends.
Distinguish among the sociological explanations of urbanization.
What are the environmental issues facing the world?