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Section 2 Introduction-1

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  1. The Basis of Citizenship • Key Terms • naturalization, jus soli, jus sanguinis, collective naturalization, expatriation, denaturalization • Find Out • • What are the requirements for citizenship in the United States? • • What are the main responsibilities of American citizens? Section 2 Introduction-1

  2. The Basis of Citizenship • Understanding Concepts • Constitutional InterpretationsWhat questions about citizenship did the Fourteenth Amendment answer? • Section Objective • Explain the requirements for United States citizenship. Section 2 Introduction-2

  3. Certain citizens of the United States by birth were also made citizens by Congress. When Congress admitted Texas as a state in 1845, it also made all the people of Texas citizens of the U.S. Section 2-1

  4. I. National Citizenship (pages 391–393) • A. Citizens of the United States have rights, responsibilities, and duties. • B. The Founders assumed the states would decide who was a citizen. • C. Citizenship came to have both a national and a state dimension. • D. The Dred Scott (1857) ruling that African Americans were not U.S. citizens led to the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizenship at both the state and national levels. Section 2-2

  5. I. National Citizenship (pages 391–393) How did the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment change the basis of citizenship? States determined citizenship until the Fourteenth Amendment defined citizenship. Section 2-3

  6. II. Citizenship by Birth (page 393) • A. Citizens by the “law of the soil” are born in the U.S. or its territories. • B. Children born to a parent who is a U.S. citizen are also citizens by the “law of blood,” including children born in another country of American parents. Section 2-4

  7. II. Citizenship by Birth (page 393) In what two ways is American citizenship acquired at birth? Jus soli [law of the soil], or birth in the U.S., and jus sanguinis [law of blood], or birth to American parents. Section 2-5

  8. III. Citizenship by Naturalization (pages 393–394) • A. Naturalized citizens have most of the rights and privileges of native-born citizens. • B. Congress has established qualifications for naturalization: • 1. Applicants must be of good moral character and have entered the U.S. legally. • 2. Applicants must read, write, and speak English. • 3. Applicants must show basic knowledge of American history and government and support the principles of American government. Section 2-6

  9. III. Citizenship by Naturalization (pages 393–394) Why must applicants show basic knowledge of American history and government? Citizens must understand these subjects in order to participate fully in government. Section 2-7

  10. IV. Steps to Citizenship (pages 394–395) • A. An applicant must file a petition requesting citizenship, be at least 18 years old, have been a lawfully admitted resident alien for 30 months out of the previous 5 years, and have resided in the state for at least 3 months. • B. At a final hearing, a federal judge administers the oath of allegiance to the new citizens. Section 2-8

  11. IV. Steps to Citizenship (pages 394–395) Why are applicants for citizenship questioned about American government and history? Citizens must understand these subjects to participate in government. Section 2-9

  12. V. Losing Citizenship (pages 395–396) • A. Only the federal government can take away citizenship. • B. A person may lose citizenship voluntarily or involuntarily. Section 2-10

  13. V. Losing Citizenship (pages 395–396) How may citizenship be taken away? Expatriation, crimes such as treason, or denaturalization. Section 2-11

  14. VI. The Responsibilities of Citizens (pages 396–397) • A. Responsible citizens need to know about the laws that govern society. • B. Responsible citizens participate in political life. Section 2-12

  15. VI. The Responsibilities of Citizens (pages 396–397) Which responsibilities of citizenship do you consider the most important? Explain. Answers will vary. See text pages 396–397. Section 2-13

  16. Checking for Understanding • 1. Main Idea Use a graphic organizer like the one below to describe the conditions of American citizenship. • sources: birth on American soil, birth to an American parent, naturalization responsibilities: knowing the laws, participating in political life, voting Section 2 Assessment-1

  17. Checking for Understanding • A. giving up one’s citizenship by leaving to live in a foreign country • B. the principle that grants citizenship on the basis of the citizenship of one’s parents • C. the principle that grants citizenship to nearly all people born in a country • D. the loss of citizenship through fraud or deception during the naturalization process • E. the legal process by which a person is granted citizenship • F. A process by which a group of people become American citizens through an act of Congress Match the term with the correct definition. • ___ naturalization • ___ jus soli • ___ jus sanguinis • ___ collective naturalization • ___ expatriation • ___ denaturalization • E • C • B • F • A • D Section 2 Assessment-2

  18. Checking for Understanding • 3. IdentifyDred Scott v. Sandford. • Dred Scott v. Sandfordis the Supreme Court case ruling that decided African Americans were not U.S. citizens and led to the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizenship at both the state and national levels. Section 2 Assessment-3

  19. Checking for Understanding • 4. What are the five requirements for becoming a naturalized citizen? • Applicants must have entered the United States legally; be of good moral character; declare their support of the principles of American government; prove that they can read, write, and speak English; and show some basic knowledge of American history and government. Section 2 Assessment-4

  20. Checking for Understanding • 5. In what three ways may American citizenship be lost? • American citizenships may be lost through expatriation, as a punishment for treason, or denaturalization. Section 2 Assessment-5

  21. Critical Thinking • 6. Synthesizing Information  Why does the United States require citizenship applicants to speak English and have knowledge of the American government? • Possible answer: Since the United States is based on self-government, it is vital that new citizens understand and support the principles of government and speak the language in order to participate. Section 2 Assessment-6

  22. Constitutional Interpretations The Fourteenth Amendment extends the “privileges and immunities” of each state to all American citizens. Make a chart that lists the privileges that you believe your state should provide out-of-state persons and the privileges that should extend only to residents of your state. Section 2 Concepts in Action