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Brunning – Chapter 5. Retrieval Processes. Encoding Specificity. Tulving & Osler (1968) Encoding is enhanced when conditions at retrieval match those present at encoding  what does this means in terms of the FCAT?. Encoding Specificity Conditions. Generation Effect: Paraphrasing

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brunning chapter 5

Brunning – Chapter 5

Retrieval Processes

encoding specificity
Encoding Specificity
  • Tulving & Osler (1968)
    • Encoding is enhanced when conditions at retrieval match those present at encoding what does this means in terms of the FCAT?

Encoding Specificity Conditions

Generation

Effect:

Paraphrasing

Material

Elaborative

Interrogation:

Asking the

why question

Guided Peer

Questioning

Asking &

Answering

Questions

State

Dependent

Learning:

Affective

States =

recognition and recall
Recognition and Recall
  • There is a difference between recognition and recall--> preparation is different:
  • Recognitiondiscriminating itemspick relevant items from distractorsMC tests
  • Study harder for recall
    • Becoming familiar what is needed to be learned
    • Organize material
  • “Threshold hypothesis”strength of information in memory
    • A bit of information must have some strength before it can be recognized = recognition threshold
    • A greater amount of strength is necessary for the information to be recalled = recall threshold
  • Dual process model of recall = the process of remembering are both the same except that you need more extensive memory search for the recall
reconstruction
Reconstruction
  • Evidence that retrieval is reconstructive memory vs. encoding which is constructive
  • Key elements are stored in the schemain retrieval those key elements are recall, but with flavor of separate realities
  • This system is far more demanding of memory spaceonly key elements need to be remembered

Recalling Specific Events

  • Episodic memory = flashbulb memories

Relearning

  • Distributed vs. massed practice
implications for instruction
Implications for Instruction
  • Encoding and retrieval are linked
  • Learning always occurs in a specific context that affects encoding and retrieval
  • Retrieval is state dependentmood, bodily functions, etc.
  • Memory is reconstructive
  • Learning increases when students generate their own context for meaning
  • Recall and recognition are not the same
  • Retrieval is fallible
  • Distributed practice is more efficient than massed practice