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By Laila Lebbar

By Laila Lebbar

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By Laila Lebbar

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  1. By Laila Lebbar

  2. Promoting Traditional Moroccan Music Case study: Fusion music

  3. Outline • Theories and concepts • Methodology • Evolution of Caribbean music • Traditional Moroccan Music • Fusion Music • Suggestions • Problems encountered • Short videos of Numydia rehearsals

  4. What is Fusion?

  5. Theories and concepts Three Different social systems (3 stages): Traditional stage Modern stage Globalization • Modernization Emergence of new technologies • Globalization “The compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole" (Robertson, 1992) • Glocalization: Local Global

  6. Methodology

  7. Primary sources • Interviews • Participant observation

  8. Interviews: Music bands • Numydia • Dar Dmana • Darga • Nass Al Ghiwane

  9. Interviews: Associations • Association Envol • Mr. Jaafar Hamza, President

  10. Interviews: Media • Telquel Magazine: • Mr. Benchamsi, General Director (cancelled). • Miss Chadwane Salmiya, Journalist (cancelled)

  11. Interviews: Producers • Platinum Universal Music (canceled)

  12. Interviews: Decision Makers • Ministry of Culture (cancelled)

  13. Participant Observation • Concerts and rehearsals

  14. Secondary sources Books: • Musiques du Maroc (1992) - A. Aydoune • Culture and Mass Communication in the Caribbean (2001) - A. R. Humphrey • Globalization, Social Theory and Global Culture (1992) - R. Robertson • The Rough Guide for Cuban Music (2001) - P. Sweeney

  15. Evolution of The Caribbean Music

  16. Cuban Music • Danzon and Danzonette derived from the military music bands • Rumba, Mambo, Chachachá • Afro-Cuban Jazz • The Porto-Rican influence gave birth to Salsa

  17. Reggae Music • Calypso • Soca • Ska (Bluebeat) • Steady Rock • Reggae • Dub

  18. Reggae Music • Instruments: • Acoustic instruments like horns, shakers, bells and hand drums • Emphasis on the downbeat (beat 1 and 3) • Lyrics and the Rastafarian believes • Anti-colonialism, racial harmony, resistance to oppression, environmental awareness and spirituality…etc. • Bob Marley “shot the sheriff”…

  19. Traditional Moroccan Music

  20. Rhythm & Scale Rhythm: • Tbal wal ghayta • Jahjûka • Daqqa lmarrakchia • Al-Hawzi Scale: • Arab and Moroccan scale: ¼ • Western: ½ • Hindi: 1/8 to 1/16

  21. Instruments

  22. Problems • Western influence and the global media: demand of the audience • Transcription of music: oral teaching • Documentation: no listing • Traditional instruments: Old and unpractical

  23. Fusion Music In Morocco

  24. The Moroccan touch.. • “Do you play Fusion?” • Essaouira Festival of Gnaoua: They made us like it!!! • Need for cultural identification

  25. Common Forms of Fusion Music • a) Fusing two or more different musical styles (use of specific rhythms and scales) with traditional Moroccan music using either western instruments or Moroccan traditional ones or both. • b) Use of modern instruments in expressing traditional Moroccan melodies. • c) Use of music instruments that are specific to a culture such as the sitar (India), the corn (West Africa) or the Cajon (Peru).

  26. Problems - The government “non-contribution”, • Americanization of Audio-visual media • Western clips evoque mainly Consumerist lifestyle and romance  all what youth dream of today, - Production and music “infradistructer”, - “Individual-ociations”, - Moroccan musicologists and journalists - And others call themselves fusion bands…

  27. Authenticity • Tarik ibnou Ziad and Andalusia Fusion of cultures, fusion of music! • Creation of new forms of music: • tarab al-âla • tarab al-gharnâti in Rabat and Oujda • piûtim and the trîq exerted by Moroccan Jews • Modernization • “New Fusion”: Essaouira Gnaoua music, Timitar, Mawazine…etc.

  28. What to Do?

  29. Suggestions • Government subsidy • infrastructure improvement • Apply quotas for Media broadcasting • Cooperation • Musicians’ responsibility for: • Moroccan Music Authenticity • Follow up the work of elders • Make use of Internet: Easy, cheap and an efficient promotion tool • Perseverance

  30. Research related problems • Lack of sources • Time • Covering all aspects of the subject • Traveling • Unavailability of some interviewees And the famous train…

  31. Don’t be afraid of the change Make the best of it! Conclusion

  32. Acknowledgments My professors: • Prof. Bouziane • Prof. Ibahrine • Prof. Wyatt • Prof. Dahmen My Friends and Family: Capstone friends, student activities, friends at the cafeteria, Tarik, Nizar, Mr. Ouazzani, Saber, Nadia, Yasmina, Mimane, Siham , Douae, Zineb, Amine, Lamiae, Abdellah, Sarah, Amnir, Nabil, Jihad, Mehdi, Saad, Jalil, Mouna, Sebban, Fatem Zohra, Brahim, Simo…and many others.

  33. Dedication I dedicate my work to my mom Sabah Elmrini, my dad Mustapha Lebbar, my sisters Maha and Rim, my baby brother Omar And to my very special one, Badr Molato