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Blood. Blood. Artery. White blood cells. Platelets. Red blood cells. Function Blood. Deliver O2 Remove metabolic wastes Maintain temperature, pH, and fluid volume Protection from blood loss- platelets Prevent infection- antibodies and WBC Transport hormones. Blood. Plasma- 55%.

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    1. Blood

    2. Blood Artery White blood cells Platelets Red blood cells

    3. Function Blood • Deliver O2 • Remove metabolic wastes • Maintain temperature, pH, and fluid volume • Protection from blood loss- platelets • Prevent infection- antibodies and WBC • Transport hormones

    4. Blood Plasma-55% Buffy coat-<1% Formed elements-45%

    5. Blood Plasma Components-55% 90% Water 8% Solutes: • Proteins • Gas • Electrolytes

    6. Blood Plasma Components • Organic Nutrients Carbohydrates Amino Acids Lipids Vitamins • Hormones • Metabolic waste CO2 Urea

    7. Buffy Coat- <1% • Leukocytes • Platelets

    8. Formed Elements of the Blood-45% Types of Blood Cells • Erythrocytes (red blood cells) • Leukocytes (white blood cells) • Platelets (thrombocytes)

    9. Erythrocytes

    10. Erythrocyte7.5m in dia ·Anucleate (no nucleus)- so can't reproduce; however, reproduced in red bone marrow ·Hematopoiesis- production of RBC ·Function- transport respiratory gases ·Hemoglobin- quaternary structure, 2  chains and 2  chains ·Lack mitochondria. Why? ·1 RBC contains 280 million hemoglobin molecules ·Men- 5 million cells/mm3 ·Women- 4.5 million cells/mm3 ·Life span 100-120 days and then destroyed in spleen (RBC graveyard)

    11. Hemoglobin

    12. Hematopoiesis • Hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis): blood cell formation • Occurs in red bone marrow of axial skeleton, girdles and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur

    13. Blood Cell Production

    14. RBC Diseases Anemia- when blood has low O2 carrying capacity; insufficient RBC or iron deficiency. Factors that can cause anemia- exercise, B12 deficiency

    15. RBC Diseases • Sickle-cell anemia- • HbS results from a change in just one of the 287 amino acids in the  chain in the globin molecule. • Found in 1 out of 400 African Americans. • Homozygous for sickle-cell is deadly, but in malaria infested countries, the heterozygous condition is beneficial.

    16. Genetics of Sickle Cell Anemia Genetics of Sickle Cell Anemia

    17. RBC Diseases Polycythemia- excess of erythrocytes,  viscosity of blood; 8-11 million cells/mm3 Usually caused by cancer; however, naturally occurs at high elevations Blood doping- in athletesremove blood 2 days before event and then replace it- banned by Olympics.

    18. Types of Leukocytes 4,000-11,000 cells/mm 3 Granulocytes Neutrophils- 40-70% Eosinophils- 1-4% Basophils- <1% Agranulocytes Monocytes- 4-8% Lymphocytes- 20-45%

    19. Lymphocyte Eosinophil Basophil platelet Neutrophil Monocyte

    20. ID WBC’s

    21. WBC Diseases • Leukopenia • Abnormally low WBC count—drug induced • Leukemias • Cancerous conditions involving WBCs • Named according to the abnormal WBC clone involved • Mononucleosis • highly contagious viral disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus; excessive # of agranulocytes; fatigue, sore throat, recover in a few weeks

    22. Platelets • Small fragments of megakaryocytes • Formation is regulated by thrombopoietin • Blue-staining outer region, purple granules • Granules contain serotonin, Ca2+, enzymes, ADP, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

    23. Platelet Plug Clotting Factors Hemostasis- stoppage of bleeding Platelets: 250,000-500,000 cells/mm3 Tissue Damage

    24. Hemostasis: • Vessel injury 2. Vascular spasm 3. Platelet plug formation 4. Coagulation

    25. Clotting Factors thromboplastin Prothrombin Thrombin Fibrinogen Fibrin Hemostasis(+ feedback) Traps RBC & platelets Platelets release thromboplastin

    26. Blood Clot RBC Platelet Fibrin thread

    27. Thromboembolytic Conditions • Thrombus: clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel • May block circulation, leading to tissue death • Embolus: a thrombus freely floating in the blood stream • Pulmonary emboli impair the ability of the body to obtain oxygen • Cerebral emboli can cause strokes

    28. Thromboembolytic Conditions • Prevented by • Aspirin • Antiprostaglandin that inhibits thromboxane A2 • Heparin • Anticoagulant used clinically for pre- and postoperative cardiac care • Warfarin • Used for those prone to atrial fibrillation

    29. Bleeding Disorders • Hemophilias include several similar hereditary bleeding disorders • Symptoms include prolonged bleeding, especially into joint cavities • Treated with plasma transfusions and injection of missing factors

    30. Hemophiliac- a sex-linked recessive trait, primarily carried by males (x chromosome)

    31. Blood Types Type A Type B Type AB Type O

    32. Blood Typing Blood type is based on the presence of 2 major antigens in RBC membranes-- A and B Blood type Antigen Antibody A A anti-B B B anti-A A & B AB no anti body Neither A or B O anti-A and anti-B Antigen- protein on the surface of a RBC membrane Antibody- proteins made by lymphocytes in plasma which are made in response to the presence of antigens. They attack foreign antigens, which result in clumping (agglutination)

    33. b b b b b b b Type A

    34. a a a a a a a Type B

    35. a a a b a a a b b b Type O

    36. Type AB

    37. Rh Factor and Pregnancy RH+ indicates protein RH+ indicates protein RH- indicates no protein

    38. Rh Factor and Pregnancy Rh+ mother w/Rh- baby– no problem Rh- mother w/Rh+ baby– problem Rh- mother w/Rh- father– no problem Rh- mother w/Rh- baby-- no problem RhoGAM used @ 28 weeks

    39. Type AB- universal recipients Type O- universal donor Rh factor: Rh+ 85% dominant in pop Rh- 15% recessive Blood Type Clumping Antibody A antigen A anti-A serum antibody anti-b B antigen B anti-B serum antibody anti-a AB antigen A & B anti A & B serum - O neither A or B no clumping w/ either anti A or B anti-a, anti-b

    40. Serum Blood being tested Anti-A Anti-B Type AB (contains agglutinogens A and B; agglutinates with both sera) RBCs Type A (contains agglutinogen A; agglutinates with anti-A) Type B (contains agglutinogen B; agglutinates with anti-B) Type O(contains no agglutinogens; does not agglutinate with either serum) Figure 17.16

    41. Blood Type & Rh How Many Have It Frequency O Rh Positive 1 person in 3 37.4% O Rh Negative 1 person in 15 6.6% A Rh Positive 1 person in 3 35.7% A Rh Negative 1 person in 16 6.3% B Rh Positive 1 person in 12 8.5% B Rh Negative 1 person in 67 1.5% AB Rh Positive 1 person in 29 3.4% AB Rh Negative 1 person in 167 .6%

    42. ABO Blood Types PhenotypeGenotype Oi i AI A I A or I A i BI B I B or I B i ABI A I B

    43. Punnett square Type A and Type B cross i IB IAi IAIB IA IA IAi IAIB

    44. INQUIRY • What is an erythrocyte, leukocyte, and thrombocyte? • What 2 things do red cells lack compared to white cells? • What dietary component is needed for the production of red blood cells? • The largest cells in the blood that leave the bloodstream to become macrophages are ____. • In an acute infection, the white cell count would show as ______. • Erythroblastosis fetalis , also known as hemolytic newborn disease, occurs in ____ mothers carrying ____ fetuses. • What antigens and antibodies found on AB red cells? • In a transfusion, what type blood can you give a type O person?