Chapter #15 . The Digestive System. Chapter 15.1 . Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods and the absorption of the resulting nutrients by cells.
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Mucosa or mucous membrane the inner most layer. Contains glands that secrete mucus and digestive enzymes. Carries on secretion and absorption. Also, has projections that increase the surface area. Lumen=passageway.
Colon is divided into 4 portions the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colons. The colon is home to 100 trillion bacteria.
Rectum extends about 5 cm below the tip of the coccyx (tailbone).
Anal canal the last 2.5 to 4 cm of the large intestine.
Feces include materials that were not digested or absorbed, water, electrolytes, mucus, intestinal cells, and bacteria. Feces is about 75% water. Feces pungent odor results from a variety of compounds that bacteria produce.
Are organic compounds used primarily to supply energy for cellular processes.
Found in foods such as starch and sugar
Not stored in large amounts in the body
Needed in greatest amount each day.
Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is abundant in food- it gives celery its crunch. Humans cannot digest so cellulose provides bulk (fiber or roughage) which facilitates food movement through the digestive system.