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QA in HE - Varna 2009 Golden Sands – 16 June 2009 By Magda Kirsch (Educonsult Hans Daale (LEIDO) QualityAssuranceandaccreditation In Highereducation
Growing stronger in Bologna * Sorbonne, 1998 * Bologna, 1999: - the Golden Triangle of Bologna reforms: Ba/Ma + ECTS + QA/accreditation * Salamanca, 2001: self-regulation * Prague, 2001: scenarios for mutual acceptance of QA/accreditation * Graz/Berlin 2003: renewed request to ENQA, in cooperation with others; diverging views, relevant seminars on way to Bergen 2005 QA in HE - Varna 2009 QA and EDUCATIONAL CONVERGENCE
QA in HE - Varna 2009 Berlin 2003 • [The ministers] agree that by 2005 national quality assurance systems should include: • A definition of the responsibilities of the bodies and institutions involved • Evaluation of programmes or institutions, including internal assessment, external • review, participation of students and the publication of results • A system of accreditation, certification or comparable procedures • International participation, co-operation and networking
QA in HE - Varna 2009 Berlin mandate • Ministers call upon ENQA through its members, in co-operation with the EUA, EURASHE and ESIB, to develop an agreed set of standards, procedures and guidelines on quality assurance, to explore ways of ensuring an adequate peer review system for quality assurance and/or accreditation agencies or bodies
A network to disseminate information, experiences, good practices, and new developments in quality assessment and quality assurance in HE. An important step towards a pan-European framework of quality management. Originates from the European Pilot project for Evaluating Quality in HE. (September 1998, EC recommendation) Has been very active and important to BP. QA in HE - Varna 2009 European Network for Quality Assurance (ENQA)
Ministers adopted the standards and guidelinesforqualityassurance in the EuropeanHigherEducationArea as proposedbyENQA (ESG). Theycommitedthemselves to introducing the proposed model for peer review of qualityassuranceagencieson a national basis, • Theyalsowelcomed the principle of a European registerof quality assurance agencies based on national review. • Theyaskthat the practicalities of implementationbefurtherdevelopedby ENQA in cooperationwith EUA, EURASHE and ESIB with a report back through the Follow-up Group. • They stress importance ofcooperation between nationally recognised agencies with a view to enhancing the mutualrecognition of accreditation or quality assurance decisions. QA in HE - Varna 2009 Bergen 2005
QA in HE - Varna 2009 European Standards and Guidelines ESG • Internal quality assurance • External quality assurance • External quality assurance agencies
Policy and procedures for quality assurance, Approval, monitoring and periodic review of programmes and awards, Assessment of students, Quality assurance of teaching staff, Learning resources and student support, Information systems Public information: QA in HE - Varna 2009 ESG for IQA within HEI’s (by ENQA)
Use of internal quality assurance procedures, Development of external quality assurance processes, Criteria for decisions, Processes fit for purpose, Reporting, Follow-up procedures, Periodic reviews, System-wide analyses. QA in HE - Varna 2009 ESG For EQA within HEI’s
External QA criteria and processesusedby the agencies are predefined and publiclyavailable and include: • a self-assessmentor equivalent procedure by the subject of QA process; • anexternalassessmentby a group of experts, including, as appropriate, (a) student member(s), and • site visits as decidedby the agency; • publication of a report, includinganydecisions, recommendationsorotherformaloutcomes; • a follow-up procedure to reviewactions taken by the subject of the QA process. • Accountability procedures: QA in HE - Varna 2009 ESG FOR EQA agencies
QA in HE - Varna 2009 LONDON 2007 • Ministers in London agreed with proposal to establish the Register, along the lines proposed by E4, based on the ESG • ESG do not refer to qualifications frameworks as such • Guideline for standard 1.2: • The quality assurance of programmes and awards are expected to include: • Development and publication of explicit intended learning outcomes
Representatives from 13 accreditation organisations from 13 countries (A, B nl, D, IRL, NO, E, CH, NL) + Joint Quality Initiative + EC (Hague, June 2003). Initial aim: Development of a concept of accreditation that not only serves the national needs but also the needs of the emerging EHEA. Ultimate aim: Mutual recognition of accreditation. Participants were against imposing accreditation as the sole instrument for QA, and stressed that ECA should collaborate with ENQA. QA in HE - Varna 2009 European Consortium for Accreditation (ECA)
HUGE DIVERGENCE IN NATIONAL SYSTEMS - out of a jungle of degrees, - into a jungle of QA/accreditation agencies ? NEW NEEDS IN QA / ACCREDITATION - shorter higher education - LLL - private universities, transnational education ISSUES - becoming stronger where problems are least ? - consequence of accreditation in one EU country? QA in HE - Varna 2009 ENQAR : WHY?
We [the ministers] ask the E4 group (ENQA-EUA-EURASHE-ESU) to continue its cooperation in further developing the European dimension of quality assurance and in particular to ensure that the European Quality Assurance Register is evaluated externally, taking into account the views of the stakeholders. QA in HE - Varna 2009 LEUVEN 2009
QA in HE - Varna 2009 Quality Assurance and Accreditationin the Flemish Community of Belgium and the Netherlands
Internal quality control, which results in self-evaluation External visitation, which results in a public report Accreditation QA in HE - Varna 2009 QA -A three-step approach
Colleges of higher education and universities carry out their own internal quality control through self-evaluation IQC belongs to the autonomy of the HEI’s who can choose their own system HEI’s have to write a SER This SER and its annexes serve as a basis for the in-site visitation. QA in HE - Varna 2009 Internal quality control
Format for self-evaluation report provided by Council for Higher Education Self-evaluation report (SER) is written by the HEI’s Upon completion, the SER and the addenda are reviewed by an international team of experts QA in HE - Varna 2009 Self-evaluation report
Visitations of courses are conducted on a regular basis by a committee of external experts who draw up a public report, The visitation evaluates both the quality of education and of research activities, Can be for one course or a cluster of related courses, All courses in the same field are reviewed at the same time Organisation by VLIR or VLHORA. QA in HE - Varna 2009 On-site visitation
Visitation panel will audit the course and see whether the learning outcomes meet the competences laid down by law (Dublin descriptors) or in the DSRF, • They do this through: • Interviews with all the stakeholders (students, teachers, employers, alumni), • Visit of the premises, • Going through course materials and documentation. QA in HE - Varna 2009 On-site visitation (ctd.)
The on-site visitation results in a public report that is published in the websites of VLIR and VLHORA, This report will serve as a basis for accreditation by the NVAO, The HEI has to present the report to the NVAO within one year. QA in HE - Varna 2009 On-site visitation (ctd.)
Accreditation by NVAO (Accreditation organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders) • Formal recognition that a course attains the international minimum quality standards, • Condition for carrying the higher education label and for granting the bachelor and master degrees, • Positive accreditation is granted for 8 years. QA in HE - Varna 2009 Accreditation
Accreditation is granted by the NVAO – The Accreditation Organisation for the Netherlands and Flanders, This entails that accreditation is not national but international, Visitation panels also consist of experts from the two countries thus guaranteeing that courses/programmes meet international quality standards. QA in HE - Varna 2009 Accreditation - NVAO
On site visitation in Flanders by VLHORA (PHE) and VLIR (univ.)– in Holland by independent and private organisations, on behalf of the NVAO These organisations are called VIB: Organisation for visiting and judging HE-programs and are recognised by NVAO The Universities in Holland use the same VBI – the Professional HEIs can use one of four VBIs (they all have their own way of going through the process) Visitation panel is composed by the VBI QA in HE - Varna 2009 differences between FLAnders & Netherlands
In Higher Professional Education no international members in the panel (except of course for international programs taught in English) VBI is responsible for the report about the results of the visitation the NVAO takes the final decision about a positive or negative accreditation, for every individual program In Flanders all programs are visited in the same period (opportunity for benchmarking) – in Holland the HEI is deciding when the visitation will take place (in a period of six years) QA in HE - Varna 2009 differences between FLAnders & Netherlands
There are plans for changing the system in 2010 or 2011 (as well in Flanders as the Netherlands: • No accreditation for every program but for the HEI as a whole (less time, less money • There will still be audits on a program level, every few years (depending on status of HEI) • More time for ‘improving’ the programs, if the visitation proofs that the quality is not okay QA in HE - Varna 2009 The Future
Thank you for your attention! QA in HE - Varna 2009 http://www.enqa.eu/pubs_esg.lasso http://www.nvao.net/