Module 5ELL, ESE, Walkthoughs To identify diagnostic tools appropriate for assessing ELL and ESE students’ learning needs in reading and instructional strategies to improve ELL and ESE students’ performance in reading.To identify the standards and procedures applicable to the Meta Consent Decree and Florida Statutes and case law
ESE Read • Hoy & Hoy Chapter 3 • Websites about IDEA 2004- if you are in EDU 624, bring your book • What is your opinion about mainstreaming and inclusion? Please support your perspective with the available research and law (Hoy & Hoy, 89)
C. Scenario Walk through for Student with Special Needs • Week 5 • IDEA 2004 • Standards and Procedures • Diagnostic tools appropriate for assessing student learning needs • Appropriate instructional strategies to improve student performance (look at chart)
Visiting the Classroom Classroom walkthrough www.schoolleaders.org Visit the classroom walkthrough session Classroom walk-through online resource Work through all the information
Step 1 in the CWT model- "4. • Focus:curriculum alignment to the state standards and grade-level expectations • T-1 is the "Teaching/Learning Objective." This is not what the student is doing; it is what the student is learning.T-2 is "Target for Course and Grade." It is important that the learning objectives and activities are calibrated to the standards and grade-level expectations. "Topic is not target." This is an "opportunity to learn" issue.T-3 is "Taxonomy" (Bloom's). Another element of calibration to the standards and grade-level expectations is the level of Bloom's Taxonomy embedded in the learning.T-4 is "Text and Materials." The items being used by students to achieve the Teaching/Learning Objective (T-1) must also be aligned to the intended learning and calibrated to the state standards and grade-level expectations.
Step 2 Step 2 is "Instructional Strategies" (IS). • This step involves identifying which strategies the teacher is using to help the students achieve the learning objective. While it is common to see multiple instructional strategies during a single CWT, the emphasis is on the nine "high yield" strategies identified in the research of Marzano, et al.
Step 3 • Step 3 is "Learner Engagement" (LE). This step focuses on the level of attention that students are devoting to the task. Phil Schlechty, in Working on the Work, identifies five levels of engagement described below: • Engagement - Work has clear meaning to the student. • Strategic compliance - Student associates work with extrinsic results that are of value. • Ritual compliance - Student expends whatever effort is necessary to avoid negative consequences. • Retreatism - Student is disengaged from the task and expends little or no energy to comply. • Rebellion - Student refuses to do the assigned tasks. • To help in identifying the level of student engagement during a walk-through, it is suggested that students be asked specific questions: "What are you doing? Why are you doing it?" These questions delve into student motivation for being "on task."
Step 4 • Step 4 is "Survey of the Learning Environment" (SLE). "Walk the walls" to collect data in this category. Any or all of the following elements might be noted during a CWT: • Standards posted. • Lesson objective posted. • Organized for learning. • Current/relevant displays. • Target boards (exemplars of products). • Student work displayed. • Writing samples displayed. • Resources available for student use. • Classroom behavior expectations posted. • Safe and orderly. • Arrangement of furnishings. • Use of technology. • Regarding the learning environment, the question under consideration is, "Is the environment supportive of student achievement of the learning objective?
Step 5 • Step 5 Step 5 is "After the Walk." This step involves data analysis for reflection on several topics. One topic for reflection is the "look-fors" themselves. One considers whether the 4 Ts are aligned, whether high-yield strategies are being practiced, whether the learners are engaged, and whether the environment supports the intended learning.Step 5 is also an opportunity to reflect on the meaning of patterns that may be emerging from multiple walk-throughs.Lastly, it provides a time to determine the focus for reflection with the teacher.
Step 6 • Step 6 is "Reflection with the Teacher." The standard for frequency in formally reflecting with an individual teacher is about 50 percent of the time following CWTs. More informal reflection can also occur when teachers meet in pairs or small groups, such as grade-level sessions.Reflection with the teacher helps to keep staff members focused on those areas that are important in raising student achievement and on the need to constantly monitor their practice for opportunities for improvement. It also assists with building professional rapport between administrator and teacher as it focuses attention on teaching and learning.
Rapport with teachers • Positive rapport between administrators and teachers is crucial to the success of the CWT process. Once teachers are comfortable with the frequent but brief CWTs and understand that they are not used for evaluation purposes, they tend to welcome the visits and the opportunities for reflection.Getting to this comfort level may take time. It is important to be completely candid about the process and openly bring teachers into the conversation about the purpose and procedures associated with the CWTs. In this CWT model, the more information, the better.
Rapport with teachers • To facilitate the process, one might: • Orient teachers to the model using the PowerPoint or hard-copy materials provided. • Show teachers video clips so they can practice finding the "look-fors." • Provide teachers with the reasons for reflective practice. • Provide teachers with the rationale and criteria for creating a prompt. • Ask teachers to practice writing prompts so they will understand how challenging it can be in the beginning. • Stay within the time frame guidelines of two to four minutes when conducting a CWT. If teachers are told about the time frame and this guideline is not followed, trust can be broken and confusion over the purpose of the visit can develop. • Ask teachers for feedback
Look-fors • Since proficiency in finding the "look-fors" in the brief two-to-four-minute time frame for CWTs increases with practice, these video walk-throughs in elementary-level classrooms are provided. Click on the link below to go to the corresponding practice video.While a video walk-through may not provide all of the observational material as a "live" classroom, we have found that they do provide more than enough information to allow for effective practice of CWTs.Of course, when your classroom visits are "live," remember to follow these guidelines: • Avoid interrupting instruction. • If multiple activities are taking place (e.g., teacher conducting a small-group session in guided reading with other students in centers), select one group to focus on during the CWT. • Interview students to determine if they understand the learning objective. • Interview students to determine their level of engagement. • Stay within the designated time frame. This builds trust with the teachers. • Walk-Through Practice: First Grade Language Arts Walk-Through Practice: Fourth/Fifth Grade Language Arts, LEP Focus Walk-Through Practice: Fifth Grade Math Walk-Through Practice: Fourth Grade Math, LEP Focus Walk-Through Practice: Fourth Grade Science Walk-Through Practice: Second Grade Science About the Expert
CWT Tally Sheet • Download the CWT Tally Sheet and use it as you view the video and complete the CWT Tally sheet. • After you tally, then listen to the expert commentary to see if you tallied are in the same areas. • You will use this process and conduct a walk-through • to observe an ELL and an ESE student at work in a classroom. • You will tally the data to identify appropriate instruction/modifications that are or are not being used to provide the students with an appropriate education according to • the Meta Consent Decree and for the ESE student, IDEA 2004. • You will use Step 5, After the Walk and Step 6, Reflection to write a short paper about what you observed.