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Chapter 23. World War I. Section One. Powder keg in Europe. Nationalism. Nationalism is A feeling of intense loyalty to one’s country or group. Ethic Groups – people who shared a common language and traditions , felt that their traditions were better than other nations. Expansion.

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chapter 23

Chapter 23

World War I

section one

Section One

Powder keg in Europe

  • Nationalism is A feeling of intense loyalty to one’s country or group.
  • Ethic Groups – people who shared a common language and traditions, felt that their traditions were better than other nations
  • European Countries like Britain, France, and Germany, expanding by creating colonies all over the world
  • In 1914, most of the land had been colonized, but countries still wanted to expand.
  • Militarism is the idea that the greater military strength you have the stronger your country is.
  • Germany, France, and Russia, developed huge armies in the early 1900’s.
  • An Arms Race – or a race to build a greater army/powerful weapons between two or more countries.
the alliance system
The Alliance System
  • The Alliance System was was a defense agreement among nations
  • There were two major alliances:
  • Triple Entente – Great Britain, France, and England
  • Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
alliance system
Alliance System
  • These nations now had built up military, and formed alliances.
  • These nations were ready for war, and wanted a chance to prove their superiority over the other countries.
  • All that was needed was a reason to go to war.
assassination leads to war
Assassination leads to War
  • The small nation of Serbia and their slavic people had an alliance with Russia.
  • Many native Slavics were living in the Austria-Hungarian Empire.
  • These in Serbia were against the Austrian Hungarian empire, and wanted the slavic people in Austria freed.
major assassination
Major Assassination
  • Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Hungarian Empire, were driving in a parade down the streets of Sarajevo on June 28th, 1914.
  • A member of a Serbian Nationalist Group shot and killed the archduke and his wife.
  • Austria Hungary was outraged and blamed Serbia for the assassination
declaring war
Declaring war
  • Austria Hungary left Serbia steep demands for retribution
  • When Serbia refused, Austria Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28th 1914
  • Then the alliance system took over
like lighting a powder keg
Like Lighting a Powder Keg…
  • Russia had vowed to protect the smaller Serbia, so they declared war on Austria Hungary
  • Germany was then forced to protect its ally, Austria Hungary, so Germany declared war on Russia on August 1st.
like lighting a powder keg ctd
Like Lighting a Powder Keg…ctd
  • Knowing France was an ally of Russia, Germany declared war on France on August 3rd.
  • A day later, Germany invaded neutral Belgium to get to France, to avoid the French army on their way to Paris
great britain gets involved
Great Britain gets involved
  • In invading Belgium, Germany was in violation of a 1839 treaty, which protected Belgium's neutrality.
  • In order to protect Belgium Britain was forced to declare war on Germany.
warmup 1 2
Warmup 1/2
  • Write the definition of the following terms in your binder
  • Militarism
  • Expansionism
  • Alliance System
  • Nationalism
the two sides
Allied Powers:

Great Britain



Later on: Italy, Japan

Central Powers:



Ottoman Empire

The Two Sides
germany s plan
Germany’s Plan
  • Germany hoped to march through Belgium, around the French army, and take the capital Paris.
  • Belgium held out heroically for three weeks, which gave Britain and France time to Mobilize or gather and arm their troops.
  • Germany then marched into France
battle of the marne
Battle of the Marne
  • Germany got within 15 miles of Paris before they were stopped by the French and British forces.
  • The battle saved Paris and boosted French moral
  • Trenches, or deep holes or ditches were dug across the battlefield to protect each other from incoming machine gun fire.
battle of verdun
Battle of Verdun
  • Battle in Northeastern France that lasted from February 1916, to December.
  • Any gain the Germans made was lost by Allied counterattacks
  • No territory was gained and the result was the loss of a combined 750,000 lives.
new war technology
New War Technology
  • New, and more deadly war weapons were now available.
  • Poison gas was an effective weapon used by Germans against the British. Anyone who breathed it would be seriously injured or killed.
  • The allies began using it as well afterwards.
other weapons
Other weapons
  • Armored Tank
  • Airplanes
  • Machine Guns
  • Bombs (from the air)
  • Zeppelin (Blimp)
  • U-boats (Submarines
section 2

Section 2

America’s Road to War

  • America pledged neutrality or not to take sides in the war
  • However, America was more sympathetic to the Allied powers, because we had more ties to them culturally, through language, and many Americans were of British decent.
  • President Wilson saw a German victory harmful to the world.
  • Propaganda is information that both sides used to influence opinion.
  • People began to get involved and want to help the allies.
  • Britain had a blockade (would not allow America to trade with Germany).
  • America tried at first, but eventually solely traded with Britain.
  • In addition Britain and France borrowed billions of dollars for war aid. It created a Boom in the United States.
u boat attacks
U-Boat Attacks
  • Germany warned that if America continued to aid Britain, they would sink American ships with their U-Boats, or submarines.
  • President Wilson said he would hold Germany responsible for any attacks on ships carrying Americans.
  • Germany ignored Wilson
the lusitania
Germany torpedoed a British Passenger ship called the Lusitania on May 7, 1915. 1,000 people died, including 128 Americans.

The crisis over submarine warfare allowed Congress to pass legislation that doubled the size of the army and build new warships. Germany said they would warn neutral ships before attacking from now on.

Wilson still wanted to stay out of the war.

The Lusitania
In January 1917, Germany reversed its policy on sub warfare, and stated they would sink all ships heading to allied ports.
  • An angry President Wilson broke off ties with Germany.
warmup 1 3 08
Warmup 1/3/08
  • Describe in a paragraph why World War I was caused by being mean.
the zimmerman telegram
The Zimmerman Telegram
  • In late February, Arthur Zimmerman, the German Foreign Minister, sent a telegram to Mexico stating: “We shall make war together and together make peace….and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona.”
  • Germany offered an alliance with Mexico against the United States.
  • The telegram was intercepted and was printed in newspapers around the country
  • Americans were outraged
  • In Russia, the government was overthrown, and temporarily a republic was installed.
  • Now Wilson could join the Allies and claim: “The allies were fighting a war of democracy against an autocracy – or rule by a dictator with unlimited power.
america favors war
America Favors War
  • More ships were being sunk, and Wilson’s cabinet started asking for war.
  • On April 2, 1917, Wilson stood before congress and asked for a declaration of war against Germany.
  • It was passed, then the Selection Service Act – called for a draft – or any male over the age of 18-45 could be selected to serve in the army.
section 3

Section 3

Americans Join the Allies

supplying the allies
Supplying the Allies
  • The British had started to run out of war supplies and food.
  • German submarines were taking a toll on British shipping
  • With the American navy, Britain’s shipping losses went from 900,000 down to 300,000 a month due to German U-boats.
russia withdraws
Russia Withdraws
  • The Bolsheviks, a group of communists, overthrew the new democracy in Russia established six months earlier.
  • Vladimir Lenin led the new communist country
  • Russia surrendered Poland, the Ukraine, and other territory to the Germans
  • All the soldiers on the eastern front were now shipped to the western front and France
germany advances
Germany Advances
  • With more troops in France, Germany drove the line back within 40 miles of Paris.
  • With new momentum, it looked as if Germany might now win the war.
americans arrive in paris
Americans Arrive in Paris
  • The American expeditionary Force (AEF) was the name for the American army in Europe
  • The French gave general John J Pershing and his troops a tremendous welcome when they arrived
  • Pershing refused to use American soldiers to build up French and British armies, instead keeping them separate from them.
  • In June, 1918 The AEF helped turn a German offensive back at Chateau Thierry
  • For the next three weeks, Americans fought through a solid wall of machine gun fire, 24 hours a day.
  • By the middle of July, the allies had stopped the German offensive
allied offensive
Allied Offensive
  • The allies now pushed the German line back.
  • More than one million Americans joined the Allies in the Battle of Argonne Forest.
  • The battle lasted several weeks, with soldiers struggling over the rugged heavily forested ground.
  • The Allies pushed through in November, and forced the Germans back
  • The Germans now faced an invasion of their own country.
  • With the Allies pushing forward, and a lack of supplies, including food, the Germans pushed for an armistice or an agreement to end the fighting
  • President Wilson said it would be ok, if
  • 1. All German troops left Belgium and France
  • 2. The Germans must accept his plan for peace.
  • 3. Wilson would deal with civilian leaders, not military.
reaction in germany
Reaction in Germany
  • The German Kaiser (emperor) Wilhelm II faced a revolution in Germany.
  • The people threw him out of power and installed a republic.
  • The new leaders quickly agreed to Wilson’s terms.
  • Germany had surrendered, and WWI was coming to an end
section 4

Section 4

The War at Home

preparing for war at home
Preparing For War at Home
  • America had to Mobilize - or gather resources and prepare for war
  • The government created The National War Labor Board in 1918
  • This gave workers rights in return for an agreement for the workers not to go on strike.
workers during the war
Workers During the War
  • Millions of workers left their jobs to go fight overseas
  • Women stepped in and took the jobs of men in the factories. Women were now hired for jobs previously held by men.
  • These jobs brought hundreds of thousands of African Americans to the northern cities from the rural south.
paying for the war
Paying for the War
  • World War I cost the United States 32 billion dollars
  • The government increased taxes to pay for the war
  • The government also sold War Bonds, or liberty bonds, which also raised money
producing supplies
Producing Supplies
  • President Wilson appointed Herbert Hoover, to organize food for war refugees in Europe
  • The U.S. not only had to produce food for themselves, but for the allies as well
  • The U.S encouraged rationing food, or eating limited amounts.
controlling public opinion
Controlling Public Opinion
  • Socialists were people who believed industries should be publicly owned
  • They opposed the war because they thought it would only help rich business owners and hurt working people
  • Pacifists were also against the war
  • Pacifists were opposed to any violence
controlling public opinion ctd
Controlling Public Opinion ctd…
  • The Espionage Act – created stiff penalties for spying
  • The Sabotage and Sedation acts made it a crime to say, print, or write anything negative about the government or the war
  • Thousands of socialists, pacifists, and labor activists were arrested
german americans
German Americans
  • People began to be suspicious of German Americans
  • Some schools were not allowed to perform German music or teach German to students
  • They gave patriotic names, such as “liberty cabbage” and “liberty sausage” to German sounding food like sauerkraut and frankfurter.
  • Many German Americans tried to conceal their identity during the war.
section 5

Section 5

Searching for Peace

after the war
After the War
  • 27 nations gathered in Paris, France in 1919 to discuss peace
  • When President Wilson arrived, hundreds of thousands of French citizens cheered him as a hero.
  • They threw flowers and held banners saying Long Live Wilson
after the war ctd
After the War ctd
  • Europe lay in Ruins
  • Farms, towns, countryside was completely obliterated.
  • France, Russia, Germany, and Austria Hungary EACH lost between one and two million people.
after the war ctd56
After the War Ctd…
  • The United States lost about 50,000 people in combat, and another 60,000 died from disease resulting from injury.
  • Estimates for the whole war placed the number of soldiers killed world wide at 9 million.
  • Millions of people found themselves homeless and hungry
after the war some more
After the War Some More
  • Civil War now raged in Russia
  • Poles, Czechs, and other peoples in Europe struggled to form their own nations out of empires that were broken up
  • The search for peace would be a complex process
wilson s 14 points
Wilson’s 14 points
  • Wilson outlined a peace plan in a proposal known as the fourteen points.
  • Many of these points concerned the adjustment of boundaries and created new nations.
  • Wilson believed in national self-determination, or the idea that the people should decide on how they should be governed.
wilson s final point
Wilson’s Final Point
  • Wilson wanted to create a League of Nations
  • The league’s member nations would help preserve peace and prevent future wars
the peace conference
Wilson’s 14 points had problems. While encouraging governments to be created democratically, they did not explain how to make that happen.

The leaders of the largest 4 allied countries got together to discuss peace:

Woodrow Wilson of America, David Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy.

The Peace Conference
the allies disagree
The Allies Disagree
  • The European nations wanted to punish Germany for their crimes.
  • They wanted revenge, unlike Wilson, who just wanted peace.
  • Clemenceau of France, who watched Germany invade France twice in his lifetime, wanted to make sure Germany would never invade again.
Both France and Britain wanted Germany to make reparations, or payments for the damage caused in the war.
  • At the same time, the Allies decided not to support Russia, who was fighting a civil war. The Allies would support the anti-Bolshevik forces against the communist forces of Lenin.
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • On June 28, 1919, the Allies and Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles.
  • The harsh terms of the treaty shocked Germany, but they had no choice but to sign.
treaty of versailles ctd
Treaty of Versailles ctd…
  • Germany had to accept ALL responibility, and pay billions of dollars to the Allies
  • Germany had to disarm completely and give up its overseas colonies and some territory in Europe
  • The treaty also carved up Austria-Hungary and made them separate countries.
  • These borders were to be disputed and argued against in the next 20 years.
opposition at home
Opposition at Home
  • Many in the United States thought the treaty was too harsh on Germany
  • Also, although the League of Nations was set up in Europe, many Americans wanted no part of it
  • If the United States were in the League of Nations, it would mean we would be permanently involved in World Affairs
henry cabot lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
  • In 1919, the republicans controlled the senate and had to ratify the treaty.
  • Some rejected it, because Wilson was a Democrat and wanted to weaken Wilson politically.
  • Henry Cabot Lodge, a longtime foe of Wilson in the Senate, advised that membership in the league would result in troops and ships ordered to any part of the world at any time.
wilson collapses
Wilson Collapses
  • Wilson went on a national speaking tour to gain support of the treaty at home in Sept, 1919.
  • On Sept. 25, Wilson collapsed of a stroke, which left him partially paralyzed.
  • Wilson now was physically too weak to fully defend the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles.
the treaty is rejected
The Treaty is Rejected
  • Opposition to the treaty grew after Wilson’s stroke.
  • Both, the Treaty of Versailles, along with The League of Nations, were rejected.
  • The U.S signed a separate peace treaty with each of the Central Powers.
the lasting effects of versailles
The Lasting Effects of Versailles
  • Germany’s people now had to live in the poorest conditions imaginable.
  • Although new countries were made, there were hostility between peoples within those new borders.
  • The United States would revert back to isolationism, and planned not to stay out of the Europe’s business.
  • A weak League of Nations without the United States would not be able to prevent the rise of Dictators in Europe in the coming years.