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Ancient Greece. The First Greek Civilizations. The Minoan civilization flourished on Crete as early as 2800 B.C. Most historians believe it was destroyed by the Mycenaeans from the Greek mainland. Where we get stories of King Minos Maritime civilization: fishing main economy.

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the first greek civilizations
The First Greek Civilizations
  • The Minoan civilization flourished on Crete as early as 2800 B.C.
  • Most historians believe it was destroyed by the Mycenaeans from the Greek mainland.
  • Where we get stories of King Minos
  • Maritime civilization: fishing main economy
first greek civilizations
First Greek Civilizations
  • The Mycenaean civilization consisted of powerful monarchies that flourished between 1600 and 1100 B.C.
  • After the collapse of this civilization, Greece entered a period known as the Dark Age. Food production decreased, and the population declined.
  • At the same time, Greeks sailed extensively on the Aegean Sea and settled on islands and in Asia Minor.
  • Iron replaced bronze in the making of tools and weapons.
  • Epic Poems - lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation
  • Illiad - during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy (Ilium) by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles
  • Odyssey - sequel to the Iliad, centers on the Greek hero Odysseus and his journey home after the fall of Troy
introduction to city states
Introduction to City States
  • Independent city-states became the focus of Greek life. Trade and the search for new farmland led to colonies throughout the western Mediterranean. Trade also produced a new group of wealthy individuals who resented the power of the aristocrats.
  • The new rich, along with many peasants, supported the rise of tyrants who seized power from the aristocrats. When the rule of tyrants declined, some city-states became oligarchies.
greek city states
Greek City States
  • As the Greeks spread throughout the Mediterranean, they came into conflict with the Persians.
  • Although Athens itself was partly destroyed in a war, Greece emerged victorious, and Athens became the center of power of a Greek empire.
  • Distrust between Athens and Sparta led to the Great Peloponnesian War. After Athens was badly defeated, Sparta, Athens, and Thebes struggled to dominate Greek affairs.
persian war
Persian War
  • Greeks colonies started conflict with Persians
  • 1st invasion took place in 490 BC. Darius I (Persian King) wanted to conquer all of Greece.
  • He first tried at Marathon, and was defeated by the Athenians
  • The Second invasion Xerxes (king) and fought the Greeks at Thermopylae outside Athens – 300 Spartans led by Leonidas fought until they all died allowing the Athenians in the city to escape
  • After a long navy battle, the Greeks won!

(1200 Persian ships vs. 400 Athenian ships)

result of the persian war
Result of the Persian War
  • Always the threat that the Persians might come back
  • Delian League - a treasury that would allow them to quickly prepare for war, all city states paid into it
  • Athens kept the money in their acropolis, leading to their ability to do whatever they pleased with the funds and control the area, this led to tension amongst the city-states

2nd Attempt

1st Attempt

Persians under Darius

attacked Athenians

because they wanted to teach the Greeks a lesson for revolting against Persian rule.

Athenians defeated the Persians.

Persians under Xeres the Great

attacked Athenians

because they wanted to try again.

The Spartans helped the Athenians defeat the Persians again.

the culture of classical greece
The Culture of Classical Greece
  • Religion was central to daily life in Greece. The Greek religion focused on performing rituals to gain the favor of the Greek gods.
  • To learn the will of the gods, Greeks made use of oracles (a god or goddess was aid to reveal the future through a priest or priestess at a sacred shrine).
  • Hoplite: heavily armed foot solider
  • Phalanx: wall of shields by foot soldiers in a rectangular formation
  • Arête: qualities of excellence that a hero strives to win a struggle or contest
  • In Sparta, a military state, a small group of men decided what issues to place before adult male voters.
  • Ephors: five men elected each year who were responsible for the education of youth and conduct of all citizens
  • Helot: a captive who was forced to work for their conqueror
  • Ideal Spartan Family
  • Leadership shifted between reform-minded aristocrats and tyrants, until land reform and an assembly served as the foundations of Athenian democracy.
  • Age of Pericles (461-429 BC) when Pericles dominated Athenian politics and Athens reached the height of its power, he undertook the rebuilding of the city
  • Council of 500 – assembly, all male citizens could vote ; this type of government is a direct democracy
  • Acropolis – center of the city, where the Parthenon was built in Athens
  • Ostracism : process for temporary banning ambitious politicians from the city by popular vote
  • A woman's primary role was to be a good wife, mother, and manager of the household.
peloponnesian war
Peloponnesian War
  • Main cause was the Delian league and Athens/Sparta always disagreeing
  • Lasted over 25 years
  • First 3 years of war a lot of death from illness in Athens
  • Poor leadership, lack of food and starvation led to their eventual surrender
  • Athens became a satellite state under Sparta instead of getting leveled like Corinth and Thebes wanted
  • Eventually a city-state grew strong in the north Macedonia where a new king would be born and named Alexander!