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Demonstration Of SPIN By Mitra Purandare. Model Checking. Motivation. More and more complex systems Increased dependability : everything important depends on computers Increased functionality : security, mobility Testing is becoming humanly un-manageable!. Testing.

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## Model Checking

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**Demonstration Of**SPIN By Mitra Purandare Model Checking**Motivation**• More and more complex systems • Increased dependability : everything important depends on computers • Increased functionality : security, mobility • Testing is becoming humanly un-manageable!**Testing**• Dynamic Execution/Simulation of System • Generating test-cases : Limited by tester's ability to devise test-cases • To Prove : Absence of a certain bug? • To Prove : Presence of a certain property? • Is CSARDAS 100% correct? • Testing : Not formal/Mathematical!**Implications**• More efficient methods for test and verification needed. • Formal Verification is the most promising approach. • Experts in these new methods lacking!! • Job : A great motivation to study formal methods!**Formal Verification**• Problem : Does an implementation satisfy a property? • Two Basic categories • Theorem provers : infinite state systems, time-consuming, not really automated • Model Checkers : exhaustive state space exploration, finite state systems, automated**Model Checking**• Introduced by Clarke and Emerson, Quielle and Sifakis in 1981 • Given a property (P) and a system (M), does M ⊨ P? • Yes, P holds in M • No, generate a trace which shows the property violation**Example : Model and Property**• Model : Kripke Structure, Finite State Machine, Automaton • Property : CTL/ LTL • Safety Property • Liveness Property a b q c p Result LTL G !p a b c ! G !p b b a a a.... F q q U p**Model Checking**• Explicit State Model Checking : explicit state representation, Kripke structure( graph) • Symbolic : Uses BDDs to represent sets of states • Now a days SAT solvers!**Tools**• SPIN (Bell Labs) • SMV, NuSMV (CMU) • Mocha (Penn) • JPF (Java Path Finder, NASA) • Bandera (KSU) • BLAST (Berkeley) • MAGIC (CMU) • FormalCheck (Cadence) • RuleBase (IBM, Haifa) • SLAM, Zing (Microsoft Research) • FormalPro (Mentor Graphics)**SPIN(Simple Promela INterpreter)**• Developed by G.Z. Holzman@Bell Labs • Promela (PROtocal MEta LAnguage) • Publicly available since 1991 • Prestigious ACM System Software Award for 2001 • Most efficient and scalable • still active research -> good support**SPIN**• Explicit state LTL model checker • On-the-fly reachability • Partial order reduction to reduce state space • Targets software verification • Scales well for large problem sizes**The Cabbage-Goat-Wolf problem!**• Ferryman with C, G, W and a boat on one side of a river • Only ferryman can row the boat • Ferryman can take only one item at a time • Not goat and wolf together without ferryman • Not goat and cabbage together without ferryman • GOAL : Ferryman wants to take all 3 items to the other side!**Property**• Goal : wolf_location = destination & goat_location = destination & cabbage_location = destination & ferryman_location = destination • Restriction 1 : wolf_location = goat_location & ferryman_location != wolf_location • Restriction 2 : goat_location = cabbage_location & ferryman_location != cabbage_location • !(Restriction 1 | Restriction 2) U Goal**State Transition Diagram**• 4 variables, ferryman, cabbage, goat, wolf respectively • 1 : on this bank , 0 : other bank i.e. destination 0010 1000 1011 1010 0111 0011 0101 1111 0001 1101 1001 0000 1100 0110 1110 0100**SPIN References**• http://spinroot.com/spin/whatispin.html • THE SPIN MODEL CHECKER Primer and Reference Manual : Holzman • Model Checking : Clarke, Grumberg and Peled • Symbolic Model Checking : Kenneth L. McMillan • OR Come To the H-Floor! :)**Challenges**• Coverage • Reliability • Repair • Scalability • Infinite State System • Specification • InterOperability**Future**• Bounded Model Checking • SAT Solvers • Abstraction and refinement • Hybrid Systems

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