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Computer Networking: Recent Developments, Trends, and Issues. CTO and Co-founder Nayna Networks, Inc. San Jose, CA 95134. Raj Jain. and. Adjunct Professor Ohio-State University Columbus, OH 43210-1277. These Slides are available at http:/www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~jain/talks/spects04.htm.

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Computer Networking: Recent Developments, Trends, and Issues


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    1. Computer Networking: Recent Developments, Trends, and Issues CTO and Co-founder Nayna Networks, Inc. San Jose, CA 95134 Raj Jain and Adjunct Professor Ohio-State University Columbus, OH 43210-1277 These Slides are available at http:/www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~jain/talks/spects04.htm International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunications Systems (SPECTS2004) and Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC 2004), July 26, 2004, San Jose, CA

    2. Future Presidential Astrologer Joan Quigley • Intelligent people destined to succeed base their actions on reliable information. • Book: What does Joan say? • My seven years as white-house astrologer to Nancy and Ronald Regan. • Software: inSync - web-based interactive software - www.joanquigley.net

    3. Overview • Impact of Networking • Life Cycle of Networking Technologies • Top 10 Developments of 2004 • Optical Networking Developments: Core, Metro, Access • Networking Technologies: Failures vs Successes • Wireless Networking: Issues

    4. Competitive Local Exchange Carriers ... Nutworking NorthPoint VittsNetworks Viatel DigitalBroadband Verio Rythm 2000-2003

    5. Competitive Local Exchange Carriers vsIncumbent Local Exchange Carriers ILECsSlowSteadyPredictable CLECsFastAggressive

    6. Trend: Back to ILECs 1. CLECs to ILECsILEC: Slow, steady, predictable.CLEC: Aggressive, Need to build up fastNew networks with newest technologyNo legacy issues 2. Back to VoiceCLECs wanted to start with dataILECs want to migrate to data Þ Equipment that support voice circuits but allow packet based (hybrids) are more important than those that allow only packet based

    7. Life Cycles of Technologies Number of Problems Solved Time Research Productization

    8. Hype Cycles of Technologies Potential Time Research Hype Disillusionment Success orFailure

    9. Industry Growth Number of Companies Time NewEntrants Consoli-dation StableGrowth

    10. Top 10 Developments of 2004 • Large investments in Security • Wireless (WiFi) is spreading (Intel Centrino) • More Cell phones than POTS. Smart Cell phones w PDA, email, video, images  Mobility • Broadband Access is growing faster than cell phones • Fiber is creeping towards home • Ethernet extending from Enterprise to Access to Metro … • Wiring more expensive than equipment  Wireless Access • Multi-Protocol Label Switching for traffic engineering • Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) is in the Mainstream • Multi-service IP: Voice, Video, and Data

    11. Optical vs Electrical Switching OEO OOO 1999-2000

    12. Ethernet: 1G vs 10G Designs 1G Ethernet • 1000 / 800 / 622 MbpsSingle data rate • LAN distances only • No Full-duplex only ÞShared Mode • Changes to CSMA/CD 10G Ethernet • 10.0/9.5 GbpsBoth rates. • LAN and MAN distances • Full-duplex only ÞNo Shared Mode • No CSMA/CD protocolÞ No distance limit due to MACÞEthernet End-to-End

    13. Metro: Ethernet vs SONET SONET Ethernet

    14. SONET/SDH vs Ethernet

    15. SONET/SDH vs Ethernet: Remedies

    16. Enterprise vs Carrier Ethernet Carrier • Up to 100 km • Millions of MAC Addresses • Millions of VLANsQ-in-Q • Rapid spanning tree(Gives 1s, need 50ms) • Traffic engineered path • SLA. Rate Control. • Need per-flow QoS • Need performance/BER Enterprise • Distance: up to 2km • Scale: • Few K MAC addresses • 4096 VLANs • Protection: Spanning tree • Path determined by spanning tree • Simple service • Priority  Aggregate QoS • No performance/Error monitoring (OAM) No 100 Mbps Ethernet switches with Q-in-Q, Rate control, Priority

    17. Networking and Religion I believe in God. Both are based on a set of beliefs I believe in rings

    18. A B D C RPR: Key Features • Dual Ring topology • Supports broadcast and multicast • Packet based Þ Continuous bandwidth granularity • Max 256 nodes per ring • MAN distances: Several hundred kilometers. • Gbps speeds: Up to 10 Gbps • Too many features and alternatives too soon (702 pages)

    19. Old House vs New House • New needs:Solution 1: Fix the old house (cheaper initially)Solution 2: Buy a new house (pays off over a long run)

    20. Networking: Failures vs Successes • 1980: Broadband (vs baseband) Ethernet • 1984: ISDN (vs Modems) • 1986: MAP/TOP (vs Ethernet) • 1988: Open System Interconnection (OSI) vs TCP/IP • 1991: Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) • 1994: CMIP (vs SNMP) • 1995: FDDI (vs Ethernet) • 1996: 100BASE-VG or AnyLan (vs Ethernet) • 1997: ATM to Desktop (vs Ethernet) • 1998: Integrated Services (vs MPLS) • 1999: Token Rings (vs Ethernet)

    21. Requirements for Success • Low Cost: Low startup cost  Evolution • High Performance • Killer Applications • Timely completion • Manageability • Interoperability • Coexistence with legacy LANsExisting infrastructure is more important than new technology

    22. Laws of Networking Evolution 1. Existing infrastructure is more important then deploying new technology • Ethernet vs ATM, IP vs ATM • Exception: Killer technology, immediate savings 2. Modifying existing protocol is more acceptable than new protocols • TCP vs XTP • Exception: New applications (VOIP – SIP, MEGACO, …) 3. Traffic increases by a factor of X/year Total revenue remains constant (or decreases) Price/bps goes down by  X/year (X = 2 to 4)

    23. Access Networks • 63.84 M DSL subscribers worldwide. 2003 growth rate of 77.8% is more than the peak growth rate of cellular phones. • All countries are racing to a leadership position in broadband • Digital-Divide Þ 30M subs@10Mbps, 10M@100Mbps in Japan by 2005 • Telecom epicenter has moved from NA+Europe to Asia Pacific

    24. Internet VoIP T1/E1 Ethernet to the First Mile (EFM) CATV Video Electrical & SONET/SDH Data Voice

    25. EPON vs GPON GPON EPON • Low-cost optics and high volume  EPON is much cheaper.EPON being planned by US Community networks and by carriers in Japan, Korea, China

    26. Bermuda Access Triangle Wireline Wireless Multi-service Operators (MSOs)

    27. Mobility • 1.35 Billion Mobile subscribers vs 1.2 Billion Fixed line subscribers at the end of 2003 [ITU] • 70% of internet users in Japan have mobile access • Vehicular mobility up to 250 Km/h (IEEE 802.20)

    28. Cantenna • 13,000 Free WiFi access nodes and growing • 12db to 12db can-to-can shot can carry an 11Mbps link well over ten miles • Ref: http://www.netscum.com/~clapp/wireless.html

    29. Wireless Issues • Security (IEEE 802.11i) • Higher Data rate (IEEE 802.11n, 100 Mbps, using Multiple-input multiple-output antennae) • Longer distance (WiMAX, >1Mbps to 50 km) • Seamless Networking Þ Handoff (IEEE 802.21) • Mobility (IEEE 802.20) • Automated RF management (Cell sites) • Large scale networks (RFID, Sensors)

    30. Sensor Networks • Person-to-person comm  Machine-to-Machine Comm • A large number of low-cost, low-power, multifunctional, and small sensor nodes consisting of sensing, data processing, and communicating components • Key Issues: • Scalability • Power consumption • Fault tolerance • Network topology • Transmission media • Cost • Operating environment • Hardware constraints Internet Task Manager Sink Sensor Field

    31. Top Networking Research Topics • Security • Large scale wireless networks (RFID, Sensors) • Mobility • High-Speed wireless • Network-based computing (Grid computing) • Optical packet switching

    32. Recent Funding Opportunities • $40M from NSF on networking research. Two focus areas: • Programmable wireless networks • Networking of sensor systems • NIST SBIR: • S/w Tools For IEEE 1451-Based Smart Sensor Networks • Secure Ad Hoc Wireless Networks • DOE $400M • Massively parallel computing • Lightweight operating systems for parallel computers • DARPA: • Internet Control Plane • All-optical Packet Router $18M

    33. Sewer Networking

    34. Fiber Access Thru Sewer Tubes (FAST) • Right of ways is difficult in dense urban areas • Sewer Network: Completely connected system of pipes connecting every home and office • Municipal Governments find it easier and more profitable to let you use sewer than dig street • Installed in Zurich, Omaha, Albuquerque, Indianapolis, Vienna, Ft Worth, Scottsdale, ... • Corrosion resistant inner ducts containing up to 216 fibers are mounted within sewer pipe using a robot called Sewer Access Module (SAM) • Ref: http://www.citynettelecom.com,NFOEC 2001, pp. 331

    35. FAST Installation 1. Robots map the pipe 2. Install rings 3. Install ducts 4. Thread fibers Fast Restoration: Broken sewer pipes replaced with minimal disruption

    36. Summary • Hype Cycles of Technologies Þ Recovering from the bottom • Core market stagnant. Metro and Access more important. • SONET vs Ethernet in Metro. Need carrier grade Ethernet. • Low cost is the key to success of a technology • FTTH is finally happening. EPON will lead. • Key issues in Wireless are Security and Mobility

    37. Networking Trends: References • References on Networking Trends,http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/refs/ref_trnd.htm • References on Optical Networking, http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/refs/opt_refs.htm • References on Residential Broadband, http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/refs/rbb_refs.htm • References on Wireless Networking, http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/refs/wir_refs.htm

    38. Thank You!

    39. Impact of Networking • Knowledge Economy • Digitalization • Virtualization • Convergence • Globalization • Profusion of Information • Immediacy • Impact on Education • Impact on Learning • Electronic Commerce

    40. Globalization • Better communication Þ Distance not important • One language • Media (network news, and even TV, Newspapers) are distributed world-wide • Language boundaries are disappearing • English is becoming the language of the Internet (and the world)

    41. Immediacy • Computing power, bandwidth, number of hosts double every 12-18 monthsÞ Logarithm growth charts are now more common than linear • Similar to nuclear chain reactions • Moore's Law: processor speeds double every 18 months Þ 1.48 per year • Network capacity is increasing faster 1.78 per year • High bandwidth  More bits per second • Hundreds of telegrams per day  Fast pace of life

    42. Impact on R&D • Too much growth in one yearÞ Can't plan too much into long term • Long term = 12 year or 102 years at most • Products have life span of 1 year, 1 month, … • Short product development cycles.Chrysler reduced new car design time from 6 years to 2. • Distance between research and products has narrowed

    43. Impact on Learning • A handheld device will have storage enough to carry a small library • Computers have bigger memory than humansÞ Knowing where to find the information is more important than the information • Human memory is pointer cache • To Succeed, welcome change, try new technology

    44. Information Glut • Web Þ Information production and dissemination costs are almost zeroÞ Too much information = Needles in the haystack • Thousands of hits on each search • Need tools for summarizing the information • Opportunities for artificial intelligence • Need to express information so that both human and computers can understand

    45. Is Internet Traffic Growing? • IP Traffic Growth will slow down from 200-300% per year to 60% by 2005- McKinsey & Co and JP Morgan, May 16, 2001 • 98% of fiber is unlit - WSJ, New York Times, Forbes • Carriers are using only avg 2.7% of their total lit fiber capacity- Michael Ching, Marril Lynch & Co. in Wall Street Journal • Demand on 14 of 22 most used routes exceeds 70%-Telechoice, July 19, 2001 • Traffic grew by a factor of 4 between April 2000-April 2001 -Larry Roberts, August 15, 2001

    46. Total U.S. Internet Traffic 20 Largest Tier 1 U.S. Internet Service Providers 60 3.0/yr Average Growth Rate 50 40 Total U.S. Internet Traffic PetaBytes/month 30 20 10 ISPs 0 Jan 00 Apr 00 Jul 00 Oct 00 Jan 01 Apr 01 Jul 01 Oct 01 Jan 02 Source: Roberts et al., 2002

    47. Core Networks • Higher Speed/l: 10 Gbps to 40 Gbps to 160 Gbps • Longer Distances/Regens: 600 km to 6000 km • More Wavelengths: 16 l’s to 160 l’s

    48. Trend: Ethernet Everywhere • Ethernet in Enterprise Backbone • Ethernet vs ATM (Past) • Ethernet in Metro: Ethernet vs SONET • 10 G Ethernet • Survivability, Restoration Þ Ring Topology • Ethernet in Access: EFM • Ethernet in homes: Power over Ethernet

    49. Trend: LAN - WAN Convergence E E E S S • Past: Shared media in LANs. Point to point in WANs. • Future: No media sharing by multiple stations • Point-to-point links in LAN and WAN • No distance limitations due to MAC. Only Phy. • Datalink protocols limited to frame formats • 10 GbE over 40 km without repeaters • Ethernet End-to-end. • Ethernet carrier access service:$1000/mo 100Mbps E E S S

    50. Power over Ethernet • IEEE 802.3af group approved 30 January 2000Power over MDI (Media Dependent Interface) • Applications: Web Cams, PDAs, Intercoms, Ethernet Telephones, Wireless LAN Access points, Fire Alarms, Remote Monitoring, Remote entry • Power over TP to a single Ethernet device: 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 1000BASE-T (TBD) • Interoperate with legacy RJ-45 Ethernet devices • Standard Expected: November 2002 • Ref: http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/power_study/public/nov99/802.3af_PAR.pdf