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Apex Advanced Technologies, Inc. Presented by: Dennis Hammond. Optimizing Lubrication To Maximize Density and Minimize Ejection Forces. Presentation Outline. Overview of Superlube ™ characteristics Theory of maximizing density and minimizing ejection forces

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apex advanced technologies inc presented by dennis hammond

Apex Advanced Technologies, Inc.Presented by: Dennis Hammond

Optimizing Lubrication To Maximize Density and Minimize Ejection Forces

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Overview of Superlube™ characteristics
  • Theory of maximizing density and minimizing ejection forces
  • Methods used to optimize lubrication
  • Applications
    • Minimizing ejection for large or complicated parts at a G.D. of 7.0 g/cc
    • Maximizing density and minimizing ejection forces for pure iron and performance alloys
  • Conclusions
superlube characteristics
Superlube™ Characteristics
  • Lubricant enters with the powdered metal as a solid, transforms from a solid to a viscous liquid with shear, temperature, and pressure in the press
  • Lubricant shear thins directly with shear stress
  • Direct results from solid to liquid transformation
    • High density achievable, 7.2 to 7.4 g/cc
    • Low use levels required, typical 0.4% or less
    • Excellent lubricity, film of viscous liquid versus slide on a solid particle
direct results
Direct results
  • No special setup required
  • Stroke rate can be increased
  • Compressibility curve can be modified to allow larger parts or lower tonnage in the same press
  • Tool wear improved due to better lubrication and/or lowering of tonnage
  • Surface finish improved
  • Improved physical properties of final part by 15 - 20%
direct results cont
Direct Results Cont.
  • Powder movement to equalize green density, near hydrostatic conditions in compact
  • Minimization of density gradients in the part
  • Elimination of micro cracking
  • Reduces the risk of molding cracks
  • Staggered decomposition in burn off
  • Excellent dimensional stability of sintered parts
theory of optimization
Theory of Optimization
  • Maximum green density is fixed by the compressibility of the base metal, volume of components added, and TSI
  • Excellent lubrication allows the user to approach the maximum green density for a composition at a given TSI applied
theory cont
Theory Cont.
  • Using an internal Apex method, we can determine the maximum practical green density of a base metal at a given TSI
  • Theoretical density minus practical density = volume of open space
  • By targeting to fill this open space with the volume of the components in the mix, we have a basis for calculation of total volume % achieved
theory cont1
Theory Cont.
  • Mobile lubricant is pressed to the die wall due to the collapse of the pores or closing of the open space as the base metal is compressed
  • Serves as an internal and die wall lubricant at the same time
theory cont2
Theory Cont.
  • 98% to 100% volume fill has been found to work effectively
  • 99%to 99.5% volume fill is an optimum target to achieve max. green density and minimum ejection while accommodating normal production variability
  • Predictability is robust and has been proven in many production examples
theory cont3
Theory Cont.
  • Some formulas need to have the volume adjusted upward to take maximum advantage of the lubricant
  • An Apex enhancer can be used effectively to make volume adjustments
  • Key issues are, the volume contribution of components needed and the desired density
common formulations
Common Formulations

Calculated G/D,TSI, A-1000C,.35% Superlube™

  • FN-0205:
    • 99% vol. 7.31g/cc, 46 TSI
    • 100%vol. 7.39g/cc, 52 TSI
  • FN-0208:
    • 99% vol. 7.23 g/cc, 41TSI
    • 100% vol. 7.30 g/cc, 45TSI
  • FC-0208:
    • 99% vol. 7.21 g/cc, 41TSI
    • 100% vol. 7.29 g/cc, 45TSI
enhancer characteristics
Enhancer Characteristics
  • Clean burning, no ash
  • Primary function to fill space, secondary lubrication
  • Needs to deform and slide with the metal and lubricant movement
  • Helps to maintain green strength
  • Compatible with mixing, compaction and processing
  • Favorable cost, specific gravity ratio
applications
Applications
  • A tall or complex part of lower G.D. - 6.9 to 7.1 g/cc can be made successfully by adjusting the volume fill upward by using an enhancer.
  • Benefits include lowering ejection forces, minimized die wear, part breakage, internal cracking or lower compaction tonnage to achieve the desired G.D.
applications cont
Applications cont.
  • A pure iron part can be made using the same concept, 98-100% volume fill pressed to the desired TSI
  • A-1000C was filled with a combination of Superlube™ and Apex Enhancer at various volume %, ejection (peak and slip) were measured as well as density
  • Possible applications - magnetic parts, etc
high density applications
High Density Applications
  • High density parts can be made by using the lubricant alone or with small amounts of enhancer
  • Many applications are running in production at 7.2 - 7.4 g/cc
  • Lubricant use level ranges from 0.27% to 0.45% for steel parts
high density applications cont
High Density Applications Cont.
  • FC-0208 NAH ABC 100.30, 0.4 wt% lube, 9# part, 54 mm height, 7.2 g/cc, 45 TSI, 99.3%volume, lowered press TSI
  • FC-0208 NAH ABC 100.30, 0.4% lube, 40 mm height, 51 mm O.D. 7.3 g/cc, 55 TSI 99.9% volume, large part, high density
high density applications cont1
High Density Applications Cont.
  • FLC-4608, A-737SH, 0.45 wt% lube, 50 mm height, 51mm O.D. gear, 7.2 g/cc, 51TSI, 99.4% volume, large part, high density
  • Astaloy Mo, 2% Ni, 0.3% Graphite, 0.35% lube, 0.15% enhancer, 20 mm height, 7.27 g/cc, 49TSI, multi-level with hole 99.0% volume fill
high density applications cont2
High Density Applications Cont.
  • FLN2-4405, A-85HP 0.35% lube 7.29 - 7.33 g/cc, 49-52TSI, 6mm - 51mm height, 14 applications helical gear, straight gears, multi- level parts, counter bores, ~99-99.4% volume fill
  • A-85HP,2% nickel, 0.35% lube, .25% graphite,0.15% enhancer, 7.3 g/cc, 51TSI, 25 mm height, gear, 99.5% volume fill, elimination of double press
high density applications above target range
High Density Applications Above Target Range
  • Excellent Lubricity with .25-.4%
  • High Density 7.25 g/cc and above
  • Metal restricted from maximum compressibility
  • Reduced hydrostatic effect
  • Predictability of density achievable but TSI predictions are difficult
  • Formulas with 3% additions and higher are most likely to be over 100% fill
application summary
Application Summary
  • High Density 7.2 - 7.4 g/cc
  • Elimination of double press, double sinter
  • Highly efficient, cost effective copper infiltration
  • Elimination of cracks, parts 6.9-7.4 g/cc
  • Minimization of ejection problems, 6.9-7.4 g/cc
  • Minimization of die wear,6.9-7.4 g/cc
  • Improved part performance and surface finish
  • High nickel based parts without blistering
lube and density prediction
Lube and Density Prediction
  • By knowing the compressibility of the metal involved, the components, the part length, size, and the desired density, we can calculate the lube or enhancer needed
  • From this calculation, achievable density verses TSI can be predicted
  • Predictability has been robust and a very viable tool for optimizing, new part development, and problem solving
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Maximum density and minimum ejection forces are not exclusive to each other, they can be obtained at the same time
  • A lubricant that transforms from a solid to liquid changes the rules compared to conventional lubricants
  • Compressibility of the base metals varies significantly, and it is a critical factor in the results achievable
conclusions cont
Conclusions Cont.
  • High density 7.2 - 7.4 g/cc can be achieved with no special equipment or procedures with good ejection characteristics
  • Lower density can be successfully made with lower tonnage, lower ejection forces, and good green strength
  • Desired lubrication and density are predictable using developed calculation methods
conclusions cont1
Conclusions Cont.
  • We can approach the upper compressibility limit for the base metal at a given TSI with alloy components included
  • By designing a lubricant system for a given application, the breadth of parts that can be made can vary from small to large, moderate to high density, and simple to complex.
  • Theory and practice are transferable to other P/M parts Al, Brass,Bronze, and S.S.