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2006. Reflection from Conductors. A perfect conductor reflects back all the incident wave back.Ei = Er?i = ?r ( E in plane of incidence)Ei = - Er?i = ?r ( E normal to plane of incidence). UMAIR HASHMI. Spring 2011. 2006. Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model. UMAIR HASHMI. Spring 2011. Propagation Model that considers both the direct (LOS) path and a ground reflected path between transmitter and the receiver. Reasonably accurate model for predicting large scale signal strength over d1143

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## Wireless Communications Principles and Practice 2nd Edition T.S. Rappaport

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**1. ** 2006
Wireless CommunicationsPrinciples and Practice2nd EditionT.S. Rappaport Chapter 4: Mobile Radio Propagation: Large-Scale Path Loss

**2. ** 2006
Reflection from Conductors

**3. ** 2006
Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model

**4. ** 2006
Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model

**5. ** 2006
Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model

**6. ** 2006
Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model

**7. ** 2006
Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model

**8. ** 2006
Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model

**9. ** 2006
Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model

**10. ** 2006
Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model

**11. ** 2006
Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model

**12. ** 2006
Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model

**13. ** 2006
Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model

**14. ** 2006
Diffraction

**15. ** 2006
Diffraction geometry

**16. ** 2006
Diffraction geometry

**17. ** 2006
Contribution of Huygen’s Secondary Sources at the Receiver

**18. ** 2006
Fresnel Zone Geometry

**19. ** 2006
Fresnel Zone Geometry

**20. ** 2006
Fresnel Zone Geometry

**21. ** 2006
Fresnel Zone Geometry

**22. ** 2006
Fresnel Zone Geometry

**23. ** 2006
Knife-Edge Diffraction Model

**24. ** 2006
Knife-Edge Diffraction Model

**25. ** 2006
Knife-Edge Diffraction Model

**26. ** 2006
Fresnel Zone Geometry

**27. ** 2006
Knife-edge diffraction loss(Summing Secondary Sources)

**28. ** 2006
Fresnel Zone Geometry

**29. ** 2006
Fresnel Zone Geometry

**30. ** 2006
Scattering

**31. ** 2006
Radar Cross Section Model (RCS Model)

**32. ** 2006
Radar Cross Section Model (RCS Model)

**33. ** 2006
SUMMARY

**34. ** 2006
SUMMARY

**35. ** 2006
Log-Distance Path Loss Model

**36. ** 2006
Log-Distance Path Loss Model

**37. ** 2006
Log-Normal Shadowing

**38. ** 2006
Log-Normal Shadowing

**39. ** 2006
Log-Normal Shadowing

**40. ** 2006
Log-Normal Shadowing

**41. ** 2006
Determination of Percentage of Coverage Area

**42. ** 2006
Determination of Percentage of Coverage Area

**43. ** 2006
Determination of Percentage of Coverage Area

**44. ** 2006
Determination of Percentage of Coverage Area

**45. ** 2006
Determination of Percentage of Coverage Area

**46. ** 2006
Determination of Percentage of Coverage Area

**47. ** 2006
Determination of Percentage of Coverage Area

**48. ** 2006
Outdoor Propagation ModelsLongley Rice Model Point to point communication
40 MHz to100 GHz
Different kinds of terrain
Median Tx loss predicted by path geometry of terrain profile & Refractivity of troposphere
Diffraction losses predicted by?
Geometric losses by?

**49. ** 2006
Outdoor Propagation ModelsLongley Rice Model Operates in 2 modes
Point-to-point mode
Area mode prediction
Modification
Clutter near receiver
Doesn’t determine corrections due to environmental factors

**50. ** 2006
Outdoor Propagation ModelsDurkin’s Model Computer simulator described for field strength contours of irregular terrain
Split into 2 parts, first reconstructs radial path profile & second calculates path loss
Rx can move iteratively to establish contour
Topographical database can be thought of as 2-dimensional array
Each array element corresponds to a point on map & elevation
Radial path may not correspond to discrete data points thus interpolation

**51. ** 2006
2-D Propagation Raster Model

**52. ** 2006
Representing Propagation

**53. ** 2006
Height reconstructed by diagonal, vertical & horizontal interpolation methods
Reduced to 1 D
Now determine whether LOS – difference btw heights and line joining Tx & Rx
Positive height difference

**54. ** 2006
Algorithm for LOS

**55. ** 2006
Then checks first Fresnel Zone clearance
If terrain profile fails first Fresnel Zone Clearance
a) non LOS
b) LOS but inadequate Fresnel Zone Clearance

**56. ** 2006
Non-LOS Cases a) Single Diffraction Edge
b) Two Diffraction Edges
a) Three Diffraction Edges
a) More than three Diffraction Edges
Method sequentially tests for each
Angles btw pine joining Tx & Rx and each point on reconstructed profile. Max angle (di,hi)
Angles between line joining Tx & Rx and Tx Antenna to every point on reconstructed profile
For single diffraction di=dj

**57. ** 2006
Multiple Diffraction Computation

**58. ** 2006
Okumura’s and Hata’s Model

**59. ** 2006
Hata’s Model Empirical formulation of graphical path loss data
Valid from 150 MHz to 1500 MHz.
Urban Area Propagation loss as a standard and supplied correction equations for application to other situations
hte=30 m to 200m, hre=1m to 10m

**60. ** 2006
PCS Extension to Hata Model Hata’s model to 2GHz

**61. ** 2006
ASSIGNMENT Review the Outdoor Propagation Models presented in the slides showing their salient features and how they differentiate from each other.

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