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Universal Usability. Serving older adults. AARP site AARP slide show (2 shows on older users and the internet; older users a usability). Issues. Assessment of people’s needs, preferences Determining potential users Design of sites, software Evaluation of usability of sites, software

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serving older adults
Serving older adults
  • AARP site
  • AARP slide show (2 shows on older users and the internet; older users a usability)
  • Assessment of people’s needs, preferences
  • Determining potential users
  • Design of sites, software
  • Evaluation of usability of sites, software
  • Data collecting and testing methods
  • Interpretation of results
  • Recommendations
hofstede s cultural dimensions much quoted tho probably not very valid
Hofstede’s cultural dimensions(much quoted, tho probably not very valid)
  • Long-term vs. short-term orientation
  • Femininity vs. masculinity
  • Power-distance
  • Collectivism vs. individualism
  • Uncertainty avoidance
internationalization issues
Internationalization issues
  • Some relevant differences
    • Language
      • Including variations, e.g.
        • American English, British English
        • Spanish as it’s spoken in various parts of the world, including among different groups within the U.S.
      • Straight translation often insufficient
    • Culture – broad placeholder representing many differences, including:
      • What’s rude, offensive
      • Experience, expectations
      • Technology
      • Taste, aesthetics
      • Preferred functionality
  • Applies not just across countries but within countries
    • E.g., serving US residents whose primary language is Spanish
hofstede s cultural dimensions i
Hofstede’s cultural dimensions I
  • Long-term vs. short-term orientation. Long-term emphasizes practice and practical value. Short-term focus their content on truth and the certainty of beliefs.
  • Femininity vs. masculinity. gender roles, not physical characteristics. High-femininity countries blur the lines between gender roles, while high-masculinity countries display traditional role expectations.
    • High-masculinity countries respond to Web sites that speak directly to traditional gender roles.

Hhigh-masculinity: Japan, Low-masculinity: Sweden.

  • Power-distance. differences in people accept or expect access to power.
    • A a high power-distance country, like Malaysia, displays customers and average citizens less prominently. Authority roles are enforced by such images as official certification logos.
    • A low power-distance country would emphasize equality among social and age groupings.
hofstede s cultural dimensions ii
Hofstede’s cultural dimensions II
  • Collectivism vs. individualism.
    • Collectivism: people integrated into strong groups that protect them in exchange for unbridled loyalty.
    • Individualism: a person’s strong sense of self and that of his or her immediate blood relations.
    • A collectivist country would show groups of people in images,
    • Individualistic countries would most likely find site content and images with a single person accomplishing a challenge more appealing. The United States is an example of an individualistic country.
  • Uncertainty avoidance. Tolerance for ambiguity.
    • High uncertainty-avoidance countries would respond better to a simple manner of navigation.
    • A low uncertainty-avoidance country would prefere a site with complex navigation with a multitude of link choices.
    • An example of a high uncertainty-avoidance country would be Belgium; a low uncertainty-avoidance country would be Singapore
          • Source: Multilingual.com
Critiquing a summary of East/West differences:'The Geography of Thought': East Brain, West BrainBy Sherry Ortner
  • Methodology: The idea that by taking individuals and putting them in rooms to do strange tasks one will learn something significant about their cultures seems to me quite dubious.
    • The vast majority of subjects in psychology experiments are college students; yet college students are a very specific subset of any population.
  • Interpreting the numbers
    • How much difference does there have to be between Asians and Westerners to demonstrate a cultural divide?
    • when broken down by specific nationalities, the differences between Asians and Westerners became very fuzzy. French, Italians and Germans gave answers similar to Japanese, different from US and Canadians.
  • Framing the argument as a contrast between Asians and Westerners in the first place.
    • The question of differences within the categories is occasionally acknowledged, but generally set aside.
some major problems i
Some Major Problems I
  • Relations between subjects and observers
    • Power
    • Language
    • Comfort with strangers
  • Topics people are willing to address
    • E.g., actions vs feelings, opinions vs. knowledge; criticism
major problems ii data collection methods
Major problems II: Data collection methods
  • Surveys
    • Acceptability of questions (topics)
    • Applicability of questions
    • Wording of questions
    • Alternatives offered
    • Comparable data x countries, cultures
  • Observation
    • Sensitivity to testing, being tested
  • Thinking aloud
    • Sensitivity to expressing individual opinion on the fly
    • Preferences for group work
    • Humor
  • Interviews
    • Inconsistency between what’s said and done – competition, getting it “right”
    • Honesty, candidness
collecting data x countries
Collecting Data x Countries
  • Scheduling issues (time of year, holidays…)