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TIMELINE - Ancient Sources

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  1. TIMELINE - Ancient Sources B.C. 1010 until A.D. 570 • Music and ritual were closely connected • Secular music was also used • There is no written record of any composers or any musical works from this period • It is said that Pythagoras (c. 582-B.C. - 500 B.C.) discovered pitch ratios using this instrument - the MONOCHORD • Plato (427 B.C.-347 B.C.) and his student Aristotle (384 B.C.-322 B.C.) were concerned with the ethical values of music • The doctrine of ethos was something which operated the universe. Music was considered to be the force behind the world that governed and effected everything. Aristotle proposed that music could impact a human being. In other words, listening to the wrong kind of music would turn you into the wrong kind of person. Also, if you listened to the right music, you would become the right kind of personAristoxenus (354 B.C.-?) wrote two works on music: Harmonic Elements and Elements of Rhythmics • Epitaph of Seikilos (Tombstone, 1st century) I am an image in stone Seikilos put me here, where I am forever, the symbol of eternal remembrance As long as you live, shine afflict yourself with nothing beyond measure Your life is of brief duration; time claims its tribute

  2. The Middle Ages • The Middle Ages lasted from the fall of Rome (476 A.D.) to the flowering of culture in the modern world (1400 A.D.) • the Early Middle Ages (also called the Dark Ages) 500-1000 A.D., is the age of ascent • Christianity spread throughout Europe • all power flowed from the king and was approved by the church • culture was shaped by the rise of monasterieshttp://www.sca.org/Society for Creative Anachronism concept of centralized government is credited to Charlemagne (742-814)

  3. TIMELINE - The Early Middle Ages Pope Gregory and Gregorian Chant born at Rome about 540; died 12 March 604. • Gregorian Chant • style: single-line, nonmetric, conjunct • notation: neumes, on four-line staff • That "Gregorian" chant was named for and credited to Pope Gregory I (590-604) is an accident of politics and spin doctoring. • Gregory I has been credited with many things, including the writing, collecting, or organizing of the body of plainchant in use at the time, as well as founding the first singing school in Rome.There are paintings showing a bird singing chants into his ear as he wrote them down. (Unfortunately, of course, there was no usable music notation at the time.) • They were attributed to him in later centuries in an attempt to build up and support the primacy of the papacy. Those who attributed wondrous accomplishments to Gregory were doing the same job that spin doctors do today for politicians and entertainers. • The easy way out is simply to use the term plainchant and leave it at that. -John Howell, Professor of Music, VT

  4. Timeline • 650 - rise of monasteries • 997 - Guido of Arezzo, (991-1033) a Benedictine monk and the most important writer and teacher of his time concerned with the actual practices of music • The GuidonianHand • a method of teaching music

  5. Ut Queant Laxis So that (Ut) these your servants (Fa) may, with all their voice, resound (Re) your marvelous (Mi) exploits, clean (Sol) the guilt from our stained lips (La), O Saint John.) • Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris • The first line of a hymn in honor of St. John the Baptist, written by Paolo Diacono(ca 720 - 799) UT queant laxis REsonare fibris MIra gestorum FAmuli tuorum, SOLve polluti LAbii reatum, Sancte Ioannes. • The Original Solfeggio 1. Ut - queant laxis 2. Re - sonare fibris 3. Mi - ra gestorum 4. Fa - muli tuorum 5. Sol - ve polluti 6. La -0 biireatum

  6. The Mass • Ordinary • Kyrie • Gloria • Credo • Sanctus • Agnus Dei • Proper - adds sections unique to the occasion • example: “Graduale” from the Third Mass for Christmas Day - “Viderunt omnes”

  7. The Late Middle Ages • late middle ages A.D. 1000 - A.D. 1400 • building of great cathedrals • founding of universities • cities emerging as centers of culture and art • development of national literature important in shaping the languages of Europe • “Chanson de Roland” • (English, The Song of Roland), a chanson de geste (c1100) relating Roland's brave deeds and death at Roncesvalles and Charlemagne's revenge. • Dante’s “Divine Comedy” (1307 - Italy) • Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales” (1386 - England) • Age of violence brought about by fervent religious beliefs

  8. The Late Middle Ages • 1098 Abbess Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1197) • Earliest known important female composer • vision in 1141 “The heavens were opened and a blinding light of exceptional brilliance flowed through my flame” (after which she claimed to fully understand the scriptures) • her best known work is the “Play of Virtues” • “Ordo virtutum” • 9th-12th century: Organum • A type of polyphony • Notre Dame School in Paris • development of polyphony (organum) • example: “Nos qui vivimus” at the octave • at the fifth • at the fourth • development of music notation • principal composers: Leonin and Perotin

  9. The Late Middle Ages • 1160 - Leonin (Paris, c. 1135-1201) • Leonin is the first known composer of polyphony "organum". He may also have been the first to use a rhythmic system of two main note values, long and short, and certain standard patterns, usually with groupings of threes. Three was considered the pure number, probably for the Holy Trinity. Only after time was the number two accepted in music. Leonin is from the Notre Dame school, meaning he lived and worked in Paris at the Notre Dame Cathedral. • Composed the Magnus Liber Organi • example: Leonin: Organum DuplumViderunt Omnes • 12th century - Perotin • Succeeded Leonin at Notre Dame • Became the greatest composer of descants • example: Perotin: Organum QuadruplumViderunt Omnes

  10. Secular Music in the Middle Ages • Medieval minstrels: • goliards, jongleurs • Courtly musicians: • troubadours (S. France) • trouveres (N. France) • Minnesingers (Germany) • Courtly poetry: • love songs, chivalry • 1265 - Ars Nova (New Art) and secular music • Ars Antiqua - composers of the Notre Dame School developed the basic rules of polyphony • Ars Nova - secular songs tended to move toward diatonictonality

  11. Guillaume de Machaut 1300-1377, major poet-musician and leader of the French Ars Nova • The most important composer of the 14th century • First to compose a complete polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Mass with unity between the sections • Guillaume de Machaut: • Mass: Agnus Dei

  12. Notated instrumental music was slow to develop and most dances were improvised • Instruments and musical ideas imported from Middle East via the Crusades • It was common to perform vocal music on instruments • A common dance was the Saltarello • Example: • Anonymous: Saltarello


  14. Carl Orff • 1895 - 1982 • A post-WW II composer • Orff regarded rhythm as the form building element in music • His music is Tonal • Orff was interested in reaching the public, thus his music is very theatrical • His most celebrated work is Carmina Burana (1936) • His most important work was the Schulwerk of 1930 - 1935 http://www.mmbmusic.com/mmbmusic/s49_1.html • A set of musical exercises for school children which seemed to make it much easier for children to learn their music lessons • Orff destroyed everything before Carmina Burana except for the Schulwerk

  15. Carmina Burana • Orff thought of Carmina Burana as a “dramatic cantata” • It can be staged with dancing and pantomime • It is a concert piece for solo singers, orchestra, and chorus • The choral forces are divided into three groups - a large chorus, a small one, and a boy’s chorus • The orchestra is also augmented with two pianos, five timpani, and a large group of percussion

  16. Carmina Burana • Text is from a 13th c. collection of 200 Goliard songs and poems discovered in the ancient Bavarian monastery of Benediktbeuren in 1803 • Carmina Burana means Songs of Beuren • Cantiones profanae (secular songs) were written in medieval Latin, low German and French by • Wandering students, minstrels, vagabond poets • Runaway monks, rascals, dreamers, artists and bohemians • The poems are about: • Nature, love, drinking, free life Protest against fate • The entire collection was published in 1847 as Carmina Burana • The premiere was in 1937 in Frankfurt • Orff selected 24 lyrics from the collection • Carmina Burana became a hit in the 1950’s

  17. Carl Orff (1895-1982)CARMINA BURANA • FORTUNE - EMPRESS OF THE WORLD • O Fortune, changeable as the moon, you are always either improving of deteriorating. etc. • In Trutina • Opposite courses hang in the ballance of my wavering mind. . . • Tempus est iocundum • The season is pleasant, o maidens. . . • Dulcissime • Sweetist boy, I give myself to you utterly • Kathleen Battle, soprano • Frank Lopardo, tenor • Thomas Allen, baritone • Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra • Shin-yu Kai Chorus • Boys Choir of the Staats-und Domchor, Berlin • Seiji Ozawa, conductor


  19. The Monks • The typical day in the Monastery • Silence • Humility • The Three Vows • Opus Dei • Lectio Divina • Work

  20. The MusicNo. 1 on the charts for almost a year! • AngelCDC 7243 5 55138 2 3 • The BenedictineMonks ofSanto Domingode Silos

  21. The Money 1994 • This recording hit No. 1 on the Spanish pop charts • Sold more than 300,000 copies in Europe • Sold over 5,000,000 copies by 1995 • Entered the Billboard classical chart at No. 1 and climbed the pop chart • Royalties were applied to monastery maintenance and charitable works

  22. The Madness • Several of the monks withdrew from the order • “We want our fair share of the money” • “We’ll sue” • The story is not over!

  23. The Rip-Off