The Origin of HIV. Neelam Rani, Vijaya Alla. What is HIV?. Group: Group VI (ssRNA) Family: Retroviridae Genus: Lentivirus Species: HIV-1, HIV-2. Virus Structure . Enveloped Two copies of ssRNA Reverse transcriptase Bullet-shaped capsid 72 spikes Only 9 genes. LifeCycle.
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The Origin of HIV Neelam Rani, Vijaya Alla
What is HIV? Group: Group VI (ssRNA) Family: Retroviridae Genus: Lentivirus Species: HIV-1, HIV-2
Virus Structure • Enveloped • Two copies of ssRNA • Reverse transcriptase • Bullet-shaped capsid • 72 spikes • Only 9 genes
What is SIV? • Retrovirus that infects primates • Virus is transmitted sexually • It does not cause disease in natural host • May cause SAIDS in non-natural hosts
Relationship: HIV & SIV • HIV-1 evolved from SIVcpz found in a chimpanzee subspecies Pan troglodyte troglodyte • HIV-2, the less virulent form, evolved from SIVsm found in sooty mangabeys
Theories on Origin • Hunter Theory • Contaminated Needle Theory • OPV Theory • Colonial Theory
Earliest Cases • 1959 - adult male in Congo • 1969 - teenager in St.Louis • 1976 - sailor in Norway
Causes • Travel • Blood Industry • Drug Use • Intercourse • Birth
HIV’s Progression to AIDS • Stage I - asympotomatic • Stage II - mucocutaneous maifestations, URI • Stage III - chronic diarrhea, severe bacterial infections, pulmonary TB • Stage IV - taxoplasmosis of brain, candidiasis of esophagus,trachea, lungs and kaposi’s sarcoma
Geography • Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Caribbean are the hardest hit • WHO estimates 36-44 million are infected with HIV as of Dec 2004
Medications • No cure • No vaccine • HAART “cocktail” - contains protease inhibitors and two reverse transcriptase inhibitors • Antisense therapy – fragment of DNA that binds to viral mRNA to prevent translation
References • http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Simian_immunodeficiency_virus • http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/AIDS • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV • http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1999/499_aids.html • http://www.avert.org/origins.htm