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The Civil War (1861-1865) Segment 15 History 16. The Election of Lincoln. • Wins Northern, Pacific States Only. No Southern or Border States. • Opposition Fragmented into Three Parties: Southern Democrat, Northern Democrat, Constitutional Union.

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The civil war 1861 1865 segment 15 history 16
The Civil War (1861-1865)Segment 15History 16


The civil war 1861 1865 segment 15 history 16

The Election of Lincoln

• Wins Northern, Pacific States Only. No Southern or

Border States

• Opposition Fragmented into Three Parties: Southern

Democrat, Northern Democrat, Constitutional Union

• Wins only 39.8% of the Popular Vote.

President Lincoln

Lincoln’s Positions

“On the Territorial Question,

I am inflexible”

• “House Divided Cannot Stand”

• Firm Stand on Territories

• Will not touch Slavery in South

• Supports USC Amendment

Guaranteeing Slavery in South

• Slavery will die natural death

• Early Believer in “Back to Africa”. Douglas changes him.

• Strong Believer in Union. Begs

South not to Secede

Electoral College Results of the 1860 Election


The civil war 1861 1865 segment 15 history 16

Lincoln Letter to The SouthPractically Begging For Peace

To Alexander H. Stephens For your own eye only.

Springfield, Ills. Dec. 22, 1860

Hon. A. H. Stephens--

My dear Sir:

Your obliging answer to my short note is just received, and for which please accept my thanks. I fully appreciate the present peril the country is in, and the weight of responsibility on me.

Do the people of the South really entertain fears that a Republican administration would, directly or indirectly, interfere with their slaves, or with them, about their slaves? If they do, I wish to assure you, as once a friend, and still, I hope, not an enemy, that there is no cause for such fears.

The South would be in no more danger in this respect than it was in the days of Washington. I suppose, however, this does not meet the case. You think slavery is right and should be extended; while we think slavery is wrong and ought to be restricted. That I suppose is the rub. It certainly is the only substantial difference between us. Yours very truly

A. Lincoln

President Lincoln

Alexander Stephens

Georgia Politician


The civil war 1861 1865 segment 15 history 16

The South Rejects Lincoln

• Radical Southerners Use Election as Pretext for Secession

• South Carolina votes to Secede: December 20, 1860

• Deep South Votes to Secede in January

• Border States in April/May

• Lincoln Demonized by Southern Politicians and Press

• Lincoln Overtures Mocked, Ignored, Not Reported in Press

Gov. Francis Pickens

South Carolina

“They have thus combined a party

exclusively in the Northern States,

whose avowed objects, not only

endanger the peace, but the very

existence of near one-half the States of

this Confederacy. And in the recent

election for President and Vice-President

of these States, they have carried the

election upon principles that make it no

longer safe for us to rely upon the powers

of the Federal Government or the

guarantees of the Federal compact”

Sequence of Secession: 1860-1861


The civil war 1861 1865 segment 15 history 16

The Secession Crises Comes to a Head

EARLY NORTHERN STRATEGY (Dec 1860-March 1861)

LINCOLN’S ACTIONS

• Do Not Surrender Fort Sumter; Resupply

• Split Rebellion: Appeal to Border

States

• Force Rebels to Fire First: Gain Moral Ground

• Holdout, Then Surrender Fort

• Ignore Existing Secession Votes

CONSEQUENCES OF SECESSION

• Search for Compromise

• War Between the States

• Galvanize Northern Opinion

• West Virginia Secedes from Virginia

SECESSIONISTS TAKE ACTION

• Northern Public Opinion Turns on South

• Rebels Seize Federal Land, Property, and Institutions

• Border States Vote to Secede

• Rebels Surround Federal Military Installations: Demand Surrender

• Rebels Meet to form Government

• Actions Force Lincoln’s Hand

LINCOLN’S CHOICES

• Evacuate Military Installations

• Pre-emptive Strike on Rebels

• Attempt to Supply Installations

Rebel Forces Shell Fort Sumter

Charleston Harbor – April 12, 1861

• Refuse Surrender, Force Rebels to Fire


The civil war 1861 1865 segment 15 history 16

The Southern War Strategy

The Political Strategy

• Form Government

• Gain European Recognition

• Build Southern Empire

• Obtain Independence

• Drive Lincoln from office

in 1864 Election

• Turn Northern Public

against the War

Rebel Government Forms in Alabama State House, 1861

The Military Strategy

• Fight Defensive War

• Avoid Major Engagements

if possible. Simply Survive

• Inflict Casualties on North

Make them sue for peace

• Invade North 2x to Increase

Alarm, Insecurity

• Use Small Size as Advantage

Federal Assault Against Fixed Rebel Fortifications – Fredericksburg, VA 1862


The civil war 1861 1865 segment 15 history 16

The Northern War Strategy

The Political Strategy

• Woo Pro Unionists in the South

• Exhaust Southerners; Make them

Renunciate Secession

• Isolate Southern States from Each Other

• Isolate Southern States from Europe

General George B. McClellan

Federal Army

Union Flag 1861

• Emancipate Slaves: Keep Europe Out

• Do not use the word “Confederacy”

The Military Strategy

• Take the Offensive

• Besiege Southern Cities – McClellan

• NO! Destroy the Rebel Army – Lincoln

• Emancipate Slaves – Open Second Front

• Control Mississippi River – Split South

• Naval Blockade of Southern Ports: Starve

South of Supplies, Trade, Food

• Use Numerical Superiority to Advantage

Richmond, Virginia Lay in Ruin - 1865


The civil war 1861 1865 segment 15 history 16

Northern Strengths, Southern Weaknesses

Northern Strengths

• 7 to 1 Population Advantage

• Industry: Iron, Steel, Textiles, Goods

• Self Sufficient Economy: Enough Farms

• Massive Production of War Material

• Large Navy – To Blockade the South

• Could claim moral high-ground in Europe

• New Immigrants: New Soldiers + Workers

Charles Frierson,

15th MS Infantry

Rebel Army

Dwight Woodbury

4th MI Infantry

Federal Army

• Excellent Equipment, Supplies for Troops

• Extensive Transportation Links - Rail

• Extensive Communication Links - Telegraph

Southern Weaknesses

• Trade Dependent Economy

• Economy in Ruins: Overprinted Money,

Can’t Get Credit, Can’t Sell Goods

• Poorly Equipped Troops

• Weak, Bickering, Ineffectual Government

Northern Industry + War Production - 1861


Lincoln expands the war aims

WAR AIM -OUTSET OF WAR - 1861

Lincoln Expands The War Aims

• War to Preserve the Union

• Most Northerners cared not about Slavery

• Most Northerners believed blacks inferior

Gettysburg

Address

• Northerners Felt Southerners were Traitors

WAR AIM AFTER 1862

• Emancipates the Slaves in Union

Controlled Parts of South

• Begins Talking about War as Moral Crusade

to end Slavery

• “Dedicated to the Proposition that All Men

Are Created Equal”

MOTIVES FOR THE CHANGE

• Open Second Front by Releasing Slaves

The

Emancipation Proclamation

• Increase Recruitment Efforts for Blacks

• Keep Europeans from Recognizing South

• Lincoln Becomes a Changed Man

RISKS OF STRATEGY

• Risk Alienating Northern Whites who fight

only to restore The Union


The south surrenders
The South Surrenders

Ground Down by War of Attrition

• Army Destroyed

• Economy Ruined

• Cities and Infrastructure Destroyed

• Slave and Plantation Life Destroyed

The Appomattox Courthouse - Virginia

• Secession Fever Evaporates

• Political Will to Fight Disintegrates

1864-65 Southern Politicians Approach North

about Re-Entering The Union

1865 The Army Surrounded and Exhausted

General Lee Surrenders to General Grant

1865 Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia Surrenders

Overprinting Causes Hyper-Inflation


The effects of the war
The Effects of the War

THE HIGH PRICE

• 558,052 Dead (Mostly From Disease)

• 412,475 Wounded – Many Amputees and Invalids

• $5.2 Billion Cost (in 1865 Dollars)

• The South Lay in Total Ruin

WHAT WAS GAINED

Rebel Dead at Antietam, Maryland, October 1862

• The South is Defeated and would re-enter the Union

• 13th Amendment to USC Ends Slavery in 1865

• The Secession Question is Resolved in the “Negative”

Federal Dead at Cold Harbor, Virginia - 1865

Atlanta in Ruins - 1865


Discussion topic 1 the south and the civil war
Discussion Topic 1: The South and The Civil War

• How did the South Miscalculate by attempting secession from the Union?

• Despite the risks and odds against success, why did the South proceed with

secession?


Discussion topic 2 suspending habeas corpus
Discussion Topic 2: Suspending Habeas Corpus

Was the Civil War justifiable cause for Lincoln to suspend the Writ of Habeas Corpus?

What does the Constitution say about suspending Habeas Corpus?


Discussion topic 3 the war after 1864
Discussion Topic 3: The War after 1864

Was there any point in the South prolonging the war after Lincoln's 1864 reelection? Having failed in their goal of making a war-weary North vote out Lincoln, should Jefferson Davis have ordered Lee to surrender?


Discussion topic 4 the civil war and the u s economy
Discussion Topic 4: The Civil War and The U.S. Economy

In what ways did the Civil War damage the U.S. economy for years after the war?