ski and snowboard injuries l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
SKI AND SNOWBOARD INJURIES PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
SKI AND SNOWBOARD INJURIES

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 80

SKI AND SNOWBOARD INJURIES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 1148 Views
  • Uploaded on

SKI AND SNOWBOARD INJURIES Statistics: (Scottish Snow Sports Safety Study) ** Skiers mainly injure Knee, then head/face, then limbs Statistics: (Scottish Snow Sports Safety Study) ** Skiers injure knees and snowboarders injure wrists Statistics: (Scottish Snow Sports Safety Study)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'SKI AND SNOWBOARD INJURIES' - johana


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
ski and snowboard injuries
SKI AND SNOWBOARD INJURIES

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

statistics scottish snow sports safety study
Statistics: (Scottish Snow Sports Safety Study)

** Skiers mainly injure Knee, then head/face, then limbs

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

statistics scottish snow sports safety study3
Statistics: (Scottish Snow Sports Safety Study)

** Skiers injure knees and snowboarders injure wrists

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

statistics scottish snow sports safety study4
Statistics: (Scottish Snow Sports Safety Study)

** Skiers sprain more and snowboarders fracture more

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

conclusion scottish snow sports safety study
Conclusion (Scottish Snow Sports Safety Study)
  • Injury rate in Scotland is 2.24 injuries per 1000 skier days
  • Over the four years of the study there was a trend toward less injury
  • Attributed this to increased use of helmets, wrist guards, awareness
  • No mention of skiers using knee braces for primary prevention of joint injury

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

slide7

Statistics:(Geddes, R et al. Boarder Belly: splenic injuries reslting from ski and snowboarding accidents. Emergency Medicine Australia. April, 2005.17 (2): 157-162

  • Ten year retrospective review on splenic injury in skiers and snowboarders (boarder belly).
  • Snowboarders are six times more likely to sustain splenic injury than skiers
  • Males 21 times more likely than females to sustain such injury
  • Most injury in snowboarders resulted from falls or jumps.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

statistics 1995 u s consumer product safety commission
Statistics:(1995 - U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission)
  • Through the National Injury Information Clearinghouse the looked at head injury from skiing.
  • 42% of head injuries were concussions
  • 24% of head injuries were lacerations
  • CPSC estimates that each year more than 7,000 head injuries could be prevented or reduced in severity with helmet use.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

statistics snowsport deaths
Statistics:Snowsport Deaths
  • Occurrence of death in USA from 1991-2004 is 469
  • 58 snowboarders. 401 Skiers.
  • 1 death/ 1.4million skier days
  • Average 35 deaths per season
  • No decrease in mortality despite increased helmet use!

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

statistics final conclusions
Statistics: Final Conclusions
  • Skiers: lacerations, boot-top contusions, thumb injuries, and complex knee injuries.
  • Snowboarders: distal radius fractures, foot or ankle injuries
  • Serious injuries: equal rates of closed head injuries but snowboarders suffer more intra-abdominal injuries (boarder belly)
  • Snowboarders suffer from falls or jumps while skiers from collision.
  • Unique pattern of injuries. Accident prevention must focus on sport specific education and equipment design

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

common recommendations
Common Recommendations
  • Make sure items such as bindings and boots are adjusted to fit properly.
  • Don't ski or snowboard beyond your ability.
  • Ski and snowboard in control, and follow the rules of the slopes.
  • Never ski or snowboard alone.
  • Get in shape before you hit the slopes
  • *Wear warm, close-fitting clothing. Loose clothing can become entangled in lifts, tow ropes and ski poles.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

slide12

Recommendations are helpful but is there any evidence on protective equipment- Helmets, wrist guards, knee braces?

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

helmets hagel i et al
Helmets:Hagel, I et al.
  • Assumption that they are helpful is based on bicycle helmet data that does prove usefulness
  • Children have large head:body ratio
  • Could helmets exert excessive bending or twisting on the neck in simple falls

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

helmets hagel i et al15
Helmets:Hagel, I et al.
  • Conclusions:
  • Wearing helmet may reduce risk of head injury by 29-56%
  • Although not statistically significant, there was a trend toward helmet use causing an increase in neck injuries.
  • Limitations:
  • Snowsport participants that fell but were not injured as a result of wearing a helmet could not have been reported
  • Benefits of wearing a helmet may have been underestimated

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

helmets sulheim et al
Helmets:Sulheim, et al.
  • Norwegian study in skiers and snowboarders
  • Methods
  • Case control study at 8 major alpine resorts during 2002 season
  • 3277 injured and 2992 non-injured controls interviewed
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

slide17

Helmets:Sulheim, et al.

  • Results
  • 578 (17.6%) head injuries.
  • Helmet use reduced head injury by 60% even after adjusting for other factors like skill level, equipment, et cetera
  • The risk for head injury was higher in snowboarders

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

helmets macnab et al
Helmets:Macnab, et al.
  • Results
  • No difference in serious neck injury between groups (helmet vs non-helmet)
  • Failure to use helmet increase head injury (RR 2.24; 95% CI 1.23-4.12)

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

snowboarding injury epidemiology
Snowboarding Injury:Epidemiology
  • Results
  • Ratio of upper extremity injury to all types of injury was significantly higher in snowboarders than skiers by three times
  • Snowboarders fracture wrists and skiers fractures clavicles
  • Snowboarders dislocate elbows and skiers dislocate shoulders
  • In snowboarders, the left upper extremity was more frequently affected due to their orientation on the board

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

snowboarding wrist guards
Snowboarding:Wrist Guards
  • O’Neill et al.
  • Studied rate of injury in first time snowboarders
  • Compared 551 wore wrist guards and control was more than 1800; no wrist guards.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

snowboarding wrist guards21
Snowboarding:Wrist Guards
  • Results
  • 40 wrist injuries in Control (unguarded) and 0 injuries in experimental (guarded) in first timers
  • No higher rate of other upper extremity injury in guarded group
  • Should they have stopped and given everyone wrist guards?

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

snowboarding wrist guards22
Snowboarding:Wrist Guards
  • Ronning et al. - Results
  • Significant difference between the two groups
  • Wrist guards were protective
  • More injuries if first-timers and those who rented equipment

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

statistics boarder belly
Statistics:Boarder Belly

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

skiing bindings
Skiing:Bindings
  • Very poor evidence for studies on bindings
  • Finch et al:
  • Review article based on 15 low level evidence studies
  • Bindings currently have one pivot point to release for rotational forces exerted on the ski from the front, but this does not account for rotational forces from the back
  • Adjustments, especially in children, tends to be inadequate
  • Suggests that a binding testing device should be used to optimize and standardize adjustments

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

skiing knee braces
Skiing:Knee Braces
  • Oates et al:
  • Three groups of skiers: (1) No previous ACL injury- 4748 (2) ACL deficient- 138 (3) ACL reconstruction- 274
  • Put them all in knee braces
  • Ligament deficient knees had 6.2x higher rate of injury than intact knees
  • Ligament reconstructed knees had 3.1x higher rate than intact
  • Injuries in intact knees were also less severe

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

skiing knee braces26
Skiing:Knee Braces
  • Kocher et al:
  • Cohort study of 180 ACL deficient skiers who were a mix of braced and non-braced knees
  • Unbraced knees had higher injury rates (P=0.005)
  • No evidence on knee braces for primary injury prevention

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

classic injuries skier s thumb
Classic Injuries:Skier’s Thumb
  • Background
  • Skier’s thumb, aka gamekeepers thumb
  • Ski pole injuries and football injuries are now most common cause

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

classic injuries skier s thumb29
Classic Injuries:Skier’s Thumb
  • Presentation
  • Acute trauma or repeated stress typically results in ulnar collateral ligament tendonopathy or disruption
  • Leads to swelling, pain, tenderness and/or loss of stability

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

classic injuries skier s thumb30
Classic Injuries:Skier’s Thumb

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

classic injuries skier s thumb31
Classic Injuries:Skier’s Thumb

Prevention

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

conclusions general
Conclusions:General

Skier, think knee sprain then ACL or ligament disruption

Snowboarder think wrist fracture of left hand

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

conclusions skiing injuries
Conclusions:Skiing Injuries
  • If points to knee Think ACL tear or sprain and consider brace in future
  • If points to hand Think skier’s thumb and search and qualify avulsion fracture and/or ligament disruption
  • If points to arm Think clavicle fracture and/or shoulder dislocation

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

conclusions snowboard injuries
Conclusions:Snowboard Injuries
  • If points to knee Think sprain
  • If points to hand/wrist Think distal radius fracture and give them a brace to use in future
  • If points to arm Think elbow dislocation
  • If points to foot/ankle Think snowboarder’s ankle
  • If points to abdomen Think boarder belly

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

objectives 1 of 5
Objectives(1 of 5)
  • List the functions of the central nervous system.
  • Define the structure of the skeletal system as it relates to the nervous system.
  • Relate mechanism of injury to potential injuries of the head and spine.
  • State the signs and symptoms of a potential spinal injury.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

objectives 2 of 5
Objectives(2 of 5)
  • Describe the method of determining if a responsive patient may have a spinal injury.
  • Relate the airway emergency medical care techniques to the patient with a suspected spinal injury.
  • Describe how to stabilize the cervical spine.
  • List the steps in performing rapid extrication.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

objectives 3 of 5
Objectives(3 of 5)
  • Explain the rationale for immobilization of the entire spine when a cervical spine injury is suspected.
  • Explain the rationale for utilizing rapid extrication approaches only when they indeed will make the difference between life and death.
  • Demonstrate opening the airway in a patient with a suspected spinal cord injury.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

objectives 4 of 5
Objectives(4 of 5)
  • Demonstrate evaluating a responsive patient with a suspected spinal cord injury.
  • Demonstrate stabilization of the cervical spine.
  • Demonstrate the four-person log roll for a patient with a suspected spinal cord injury.
  • Demonstrate how to log roll a patient with a suspected spinal cord injury using two people.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

objectives 5 of 5
Objectives(5 of 5)
  • Demonstrate securing a patient to a long backboard.
  • Demonstrate the procedure for rapid extrication.
  • Demonstrate helmet removal techniques.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

spinal column
Spinal Column

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

assessment of spinal injuries
Assessment of Spinal Injuries
  • Vehicle crashes (snowmobile, car, motorcycle)
  • Snow rider collisions with fixed objects
  • Snow rider collisions with other snow riders
  • Falls from heights
  • Blunt or penetrating trauma
  • Blunt trauma
  • Hangings
  • Diving accidents

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

questions to ask responsive patients
Questions to Ask Responsive Patients
  • Does your neck or back hurt?
  • What happened?
  • Where (specific location) does it hurt?
  • Can you feel me touching your fingers? Your toes?
  • Can you move your hands and feet?

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

assessment of spinal injuries43
Assessment of Spinal Injuries
  • Assess DCAP-BTLS.
  • Avoid any excessive motion.
  • Assess strength in each extremity and compare.
  • Absence of pain does not rule out injury.
  • Ability to move or walk does not rule out injury.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

signs and symptoms of spinal injury
Signs and Symptoms of Spinal Injury
  • Pain or tenderness of spine
  • Deformity of spine
  • Tingling and/or weakness in the extremities
  • Loss of sensation or paralysis
  • Incontinence
  • Soft-tissue injuries to head, neck, back

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

emergency medical care
Emergency Medical Care
  • Follow BSI precautions.
  • Manage the airway.
    • Perform the jaw-thrust maneuver to open the airway.
    • Consider inserting an oropharyngeal airway.
    • Administer oxygen.
  • Stabilize the cervical spine.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

stabilization of the cervical spine 1 of 3
Stabilization of the Cervical Spine (1 of 3)
  • Hold patient’s head firmly with both hands.
  • Support the lower jaw.
  • Move to patient’s head to eyes-forward position.
  • Maintain position until patient is secured to backboard.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

stabilization of the cervical spine 2 of 3
Stabilization of the Cervical Spine (2 of 3)
  • Assess and monitor CMS functions.
  • Cervical collars do not replace manual stabilization.
  • Improperly fitted collars may be harmful.
  • Towel rolls and/or blanket rolls can be substituted for cervical collar.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

stabilization of the cervical spine 3 of 3
Stabilization of the Cervical Spine (3 of 3)
  • Do not force the head into a neutral, in-line position if the following develop:
    • Muscles spasms
    • Increase in pain
    • Numbness, tingling, or weakness
    • Compromised airway or breathing

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

preparation for transport supine patients 1 of 2
Preparation for Transport:Supine Patients(1 of 2)
  • Maintain in-line stabilization.
  • Assess and monitor distal CMS functions in each extremity.
  • Apply a cervical collar, sized appropriately.
  • Have other team members position immobilization device.
  • Log roll patient; quickly assess the back.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

preparation for transport supine patients 2 of 2
Preparation for Transport:Supine Patients (2 of 2)
  • Center patient on device.
  • Secure upper torso to device.
  • Secure pelvis, legs, and feet.
  • Immobilize and secure the head.
  • Check and adjust all straps.
  • Reassess distal CMS functions.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

preparation for transport sitting patients
Preparation for Transport: Sitting Patients
  • Maintain manual in-line stabilization.
  • Assess CMS functions, apply a cervical collar.
  • Place a short board or short immobilization device behind patient.
  • Position device around patient and secure.
  • Turn and lower patient to long backboard.
  • Secure short and long backboards together.
  • Reassess distal CMS functions.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

preparation for transport standing patients
Preparation for Transport: Standing Patients
  • Stabilize the head and neck from behind and apply a cervical collar.
  • Position board upright behind patient and secure.
  • A rescuer stands at each side, facing the patient.
  • Reach under each arm, grasp board near patient’s shoulder.
  • Carefully lower patient to ground.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

head injuries
Head Injuries
  • All head injuries are potentially serious.
  • Types include:
    • Scalp lacerations
    • Skull fractures
    • Brain injuries
    • Medical conditions
    • Complications of head injuries

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

scalp lacerations
Scalp Lacerations
  • Scalp has a rich blood supply.
  • There may be more serious, deeper injuries.
  • Follow BSI precautions.
  • Fold skin flaps back down onto scalp.
  • Control bleeding by direct pressure.
  • Watch for skull fractures
  • Add additional dressings as needed.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

skull fracture
Skull Fracture
  • Indicates significant force
  • Signs:
    • Obvious deformity
    • Visible crack in skull
    • Raccoon eyes
    • Battle’s sign
    • Cerebrospinal fluid

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

concussion 1 of 2
Concussion (1 of 2)
  • Minor traumatic brain injury (TBI)
  • Temporary loss or alteration in brain function
  • May result in unresponsiveness, confusion, or amnesia
  • Retrograde amnesia: forgetting events leading up to injury

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

concussion 2 of 2
Concussion (2 of 2)
  • Anterograde (posttraumatic) amnesia: forgetting events after the injury
  • Perseveration: repetitive speech patterns
  • Brain can sustain bruise when skull is struck.
  • There will be bleeding and swelling.
  • Bleeding will increase pressure within skull.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

intracranial bleeding
Intracranial Bleeding
  • Major TBI
  • Laceration or rupture of blood vessel in brain
    • Subdural
    • Intracerebral
    • Epidural

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

other brain injuries
Other Brain Injuries
  • Brain injuries are not always caused by trauma.
  • Medical conditions may cause spontaneous bleeding in the brain.
    • Example: high blood pressure
  • Signs and symptoms of nontraumatic injuries are the same as those of traumatic injuries.
    • There is no MOI.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

complications of head injury
Complications of Head Injury
  • Cerebral edema is one of the most serious complications.
    • Ensure airway and provide oxygen.
  • Seizure (convulsion) may occur.
  • Vomiting may occur.
    • Common in children
  • Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid may occur.
    • Do not pack ears or nose.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

assessing head injuries 1 of 2
Assessing Head Injuries (1 of 2)
  • Common causes:
    • Skier-object (fixed or moving) collisions
    • Direct blows (deformed or dented helmet)
    • Falls from heights
    • Sports injuries, especially involving speed
  • Evaluate and monitor level of responsiveness

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

assessing head injuries 2 of 2
Assessing Head Injuries (2 of 2)
  • Blunt injuries are associated with trauma.
  • Consider MOI.
  • Assess and monitor level of responsiveness.
  • Evaluate and compare pupil size, shape, and reaction to light.
  • Injury may be closed or open.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

signs and symptoms 1 of 3
Signs and Symptoms (1 of 3)
  • Lacerations, contusions, hematomas to scalp
  • Soft areas or depression upon palpation
  • Visible skull fractures or deformities
  • Ecchymosis around eyes and behind ear
  • Clear or pink CSF leakage
  • Failure of pupils to respond to light

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

signs and symptoms 2 of 3
Signs and Symptoms (2 of 3)
  • Unequal pupils (anisocoria)
    • Occurs naturally in 5% of the population
  • Loss of sensation and/or motor function
  • Period of unresponsiveness
  • Respiratory distress due to bleeding or swelling of the airway
  • Amnesia

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

signs and symptoms 3 of 3
Signs and Symptoms (3 of 3)
  • Seizures
  • Numbness or tingling in the extremities
  • Irregular respirations
  • Dizziness
  • Visual complaints
  • Combative or abnormal behavior
  • Nausea or vomiting

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

level of responsiveness
Level of Responsiveness
  • Change in level of responsiveness is the single most important observation.
  • Use the AVPU scale or Glasgow Coma Scale (depending on local protocols).
  • Reassess level of responsiveness:
    • Every 15 minutes if patient is stable.
    • Every 5 minutes if patient is unstable.
  • Levels may fluctuate or progressively deteriorate.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

change in pupil size
Change in Pupil Size
  • Unequal pupil size may indicate increased pressure on one side of the brain.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

emergency medical care68
Emergency Medical Care
  • Protect the cervical spine.
  • Follow these three principles:
    • Establish an adequate airway, provide high-flow oxygen.
    • Control bleeding, provide adequate circulation.
    • Assess baseline vital signs and monitor patient’s level of responsiveness.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

managing the airway
Managing the Airway
  • First priority!
  • Use jaw-thrust maneuver.
  • Maintain neutral, in-line stabilization.
  • Use suction and remove foreign bodies.
  • Provide high-flow oxygen.
  • Assist ventilations as needed.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

circulation
Circulation
  • Start CPR in patients with cardiac arrest.
  • Control bleeding.
  • Shock is usually due to bleeding.
  • Patients with a medical condition or nontraumatic brain injury should be placed on side to avoid aspiration.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

cervical collar
Cervical Collar
  • Provides preliminary, partial support
  • Applied to every patient with a suspected spinal injury
  • Used with manual stabilization until patient is secured to spinal immobilization device
  • Must be correctly sized

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

applying a cervical collar
Applying a Cervical Collar
  • One rescuer provides continuous manual in-line support of head.
  • Measure proper size collar.
  • Place chin support snugly under chin.
  • Maintain manual support.
  • Wrap collar around neck.
  • Ensure that collar fits.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

backboards
Backboards
  • Short backboards, vests
    • Used on patients found in sitting position
    • Used in extrication
  • Long backboards
    • Provide full-body immobilization
    • Can be used to splint many injuries

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

helmet removal 1 of 5
Helmet Removal (1 of 5)
  • Is airway clear and is patient breathing adequately?
  • Can airway be maintained and ventilations assisted with helmet in place?
  • How well does helmet fit?
  • Can patient move within helmet?
  • Can spine be immobilized in a neutral position with helmet on?

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

helmet removal 2 of 5
Helmet Removal (2 of 5)
  • A helmet that fits well prevents the head from moving and should be left on, as long as:
    • There are no impending airway or breathing problems.
    • It does not interfere with assessment and treatment of the airway.
    • You can properly immobilize the spine.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

helmet removal 3 of 5
Helmet Removal (3 of 5)
  • Remove a helmet if:
    • It makes assessing the airway difficult.
    • It interferes with spinal immobilization.
    • It allows excessive head movements.
    • Patient is in cardiac arrest.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

helmet removal 4 of 5
Helmet Removal (4 of 5)
  • Remove glasses or goggles.
  • Stabilize head and loosen strap.
  • Place hands at the jaw and back of head.
  • Begin to gently slide helmet up and off.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

helmet removal 5 of 5
Helmet Removal (5 of 5)
  • Slide hand up the back of head to prevent it from moving.
  • Rotate helmet all the way off head.
  • Manually stabilize cervical spine as normal.
  • Apply cervical collar.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

pediatric needs 1 of 2
Pediatric Needs (1 of 2)
  • Children will need additional padding to prevent neck flexion.
  • Blanket rolls can be used in place of cervical collars.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP

pediatric needs 2 of 2
Pediatric Needs (2 of 2)
  • Children may need extra padding to maintain immobilization.
  • Car seats can be used as immobilization devices.

Outdoor Emergency Care, 4th Edition AAOS/NSP