REFUGEE COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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REFUGEE COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA

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  1. REFUGEE COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA Emerging Communities

  2. Origin of Offshore Program Entrants

  3. Origin of Offshore Program Entrants

  4. Origin of Offshore Program Entrants

  5. IHSS Arrivals by Nationality to Victoria Sudan 2005 Iraq 309 Liberia 221 Ethiopia 129 Afghanistan 126 Burma 125 Iran 96 Fmr Yug 64 Burundi 59 Somalia 34 Eritrea 23 Sierra Leone 19 DRC 15

  6. Top 10 Victorian LGAs

  7. Map of Africa

  8. Liberia

  9. Brief History • Gained independence 1847 • State founded by freed American slaves • Dominated by minority Afro-American settlers • Instability began in 1980 with coup • 14 years of civil war ended in 2003 • More than 200,000 killed and over 1 million fled • Situation still remains fragile

  10. Facts & Figures • Capital – Monrovia • Population – 3.5 million • 95% indigenous tribes 2.5-5% Americo-Liberians • Official languages: English & 29 African languages • Predominantly Christian and indigenous beliefs • 57.5% literacy rate • Economy devastated – primary export rubber

  11. Health • Life expectancy males 40 females 44 (who) • 80% of population lives on less than $1 per day (WHO) • Health system breakdown • Malnutrition and water/sanitation related diseases – cholera, dysentery, malaria • 5.9% Prevalence of HIV/AIDS – up to 20% in some urban areas • Increase in gender based violence during conflict

  12. Refugees Possible resettlement: • Mandingo (mainly muslim) or Krahn background in Guinea • Urban refugees in Sierra Leone • Experienced multiple displacement • Survivors of violence & torture – incl. gender based – ‘rebel wives’ • Elderly and orphans Number of Humanitarian visas granted in last 3 program years: 630

  13. Current Intake • Group resettlement of mainly female-headed households from Guinea and Ivory Coast under women at risk visa • 60% Christian, 40% Muslim • 188 settling in Melbourne and Geelong • Most have been in camps since early 1990s • Many have experienced multiple displacement due to fighting in country of exile • Survivors of violence & torture – often gender based

  14. Sierra Leone

  15. Brief History • British Colony • Independence in 1961 • 1991-2002 Civil War • 50,000 dead. Trademark of rebels was to hack off victim’s hands • Civil war funded/perpetuated by diamond trade • 70,000 former combatants disarmed and ‘rehabilitated’ • Peace remains fragile

  16. Facts & Figures • Capital – Freetown • Population – 5.1 million • 90% African tribes, 10% Krio (descendants from freed Jamaican slaves) • Official languages: English & Krio (Creole derived from English) • 60% Muslim, 30% indigenous beliefs • 31.4% literacy rate • 2/3 population subsistence agriculture – hard currency through diamonds

  17. Health • Life expectancy males 32 females 35 (WHO) • Gender violence serious threat to public health • High levels of malnutrition • Respiratory infections, diarrhoea, malaria • 7% Prevalence of HIV/AIDS –25% for the military

  18. Refugees Possible resettlement: • Women at risk • Survivors of torture & trauma, including amputees • Former unaccompanied minors who have reached majority and have no family or other ties Number of Humanitarian visas granted in last 3 program years: 711

  19. Latest Intake • From camp in Guinea (group resettlement along with the Liberians)

  20. Burundi

  21. Brief History • Belgian colony connected to Rwanda - Ruanda-Urundi • 1962 gains independence • Plagued by continuous ethnic conflict and massacres between Tutsi minority and Hutu majority • 1988 Thousands of Hutus massacred and thousands flee over border into Rwanda • 1993 first democratically elected President is Hutu – 4 months later is assassinated • 1994 parliament appoints another Hutu President who is killed later in the year when plane is shot down (Rwandan President also killed) • 2003 government power-sharing arrangements brokered along with ceasefire. • 2004 Dec disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process officially began

  22. Facts and Figures • Capital – Bujumbura • Population – over 6 million • 85% Hutu, 14% Tutsi • Official languages: Kirundi and French • Predominantly Christian • 51% literacy rate • Mainly subsistence agriculture

  23. Health • Life expectancy males 39 females 43 (who) • 69% of population lives below poverty line (WHO) • 4.1-8.8% Prevalence of HIV/AIDS • Prevalance of HIV/AIDs among adults with TB – 35% • High prevalence of Malaria

  24. 1972 Refugees who fled to Tanzania – more than 30 years in exile No longer have ties Burundi Likely group resettlement 1990s Survivors of violence & torture Women at risk Legal & protection issues Political profile Mixed marriages Refugees Number of Humanitarian visas granted in last 3 program years: 176

  25. Latest Intake • From camps in Tanzania • Average time in camps 8 years • No running water or electricity • Cuts in food rations by World Food Program - malnutrition

  26. RWANDA

  27. Brief History • Ex Belgian colony – Ruanda-Urundi (later to become Rwanda and Burundi) • Belgium ruled indirectly through Tutsi kings • Tutsi minority Hutu majority • 1959 Tutsi king overthrown, tens of thousands of Tutsis exiled to Uganda. • 1961 Rwanda gains independence • Periodic massacres of Tutsis

  28. More Recently • Tutsi led Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) make invasions from Uganda • 1993 President signs power-sharing agreement with Tutsis • 1994 April, President killed along with Burundian president when plane shot down. • This triggers genocidal attacks against Tutsis and moderate Hutus • RPF launch military campaign & regain control of country in July • Approx 2 million Rwandans, mainly Hutu forced into exile in neighboring states

  29. Facts & Figures • Capital Kigali • Pop – almost 8 million • 84% Hutu, 15% Tutsi • Three official languages: Kinyarwanda (Bantu), French & English • Predominantly Christian • 70% literacy rate • Mainly subsistence agriculture

  30. Health • 25% of sexually active urban population has HIV/Aids (UNDP, 1999) • 10-11% in rural areas • Life expectancy males 38 females 39 • 34% female headed households

  31. Refugees • 2004 UNHCR sponsored repatriation exercise – Amnesty has concerns • Rwandans in need of resettlement: • Women at risk • Couples in mixed marriages • Traumatised survivors of extreme violence • Refugees with no local integration prospects • Hutu opponents of the current regime

  32. Sudan SOUTH: • Civil war >20 years • >2 million dead • >4 million displaced • >570,000 refugees • Peace accord signed January 2005 DARFUR: • Fighting since Feb 03 • 1.6 million displaced • 17,000 dead

  33. South • 21 year civil war between North (Arab) and South (African) • 2 million killed • 4 million displaced • Peace deal signed Jan 2005 • South to get greater autonomy and an independence referendum in 6 years • North to receive equal share of oil reserves that are ma

  34. Darfur • 2003 separate fighting broke out in western region of Darfur after rebels seeking greater autonomy began insurrection • Pro-govt Arab militias accused of ethnic cleansing • Tens of thousands killed • 1.8 million displaced (internally and over border into Chad)

  35. Facts and Figures • Population: 35 million • Capital: Khartoum • Languages: Arabic (official), Nubian • Religions: Islam, Christianity • Life expectancy: 54 (men), 57 (women) • Health figures for southern Sudan difficult to establish due to destruction of infrastructure • Widespread poverty and illiteracy

  36. Democratic Republic of Congo • 3.8 million deaths in 5 years • Ongoing conflict despite 2003 peace agreement • 31,000 deaths in 18 months > “peace” • Fighting for access to natural resources • Rwandan complication • Violations by UN troops • Vulnerable groups include ethnic minorities, mixed marriages and torture trauma survivors

  37. Togo • Unstable since achieving independence from the French in 1960 • Very poor human rights record – especially by military • Sanctions have destroyed economy • Political crisis in early 2005 • Resettlement for long term refugees unable to return

  38. Bhutan • 1988 - ethnic Nepalese declared “illegal immigrants” • 1990 – violent clashes lead to exodus • >100,000 now living in crowded and dangerous camps in Eastern Nepal • Nepal says they must return to Bhutan. Bhutan will only allow small numbers to return • Standoff – complicated by political unrest in Nepal