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Radiological Equipment - Basic. Objectives. For each radiation detection instrument: Identify capabilities, limitations, and primary uses Identify the components, controls, and indicators Perform basic operating procedures Understand operator maintenance. IsoTrak DoseGuard .

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objectives
Objectives
  • For each radiation detection instrument:
    • Identify capabilities, limitations, and primary uses
    • Identify the components, controls, and indicators
    • Perform basic operating procedures
    • Understand operator maintenance
isotrak doseguard
IsoTrak DoseGuard

Personal Alarm Dosimeter

personal dosimeter
Personal Dosimeter
  • Capabilities
    • Records total gamma/x-ray dose and dose rate
    • User-adjustable features
  • Limitations
    • Not intended for survey
    • Does not detect alpha, beta, neutrons
    • No display light
  • Best use
    • Alert wearer of high dose or dose rate
    • Indoors hospital staff
equipment safety precautions
Equipment Safety Precautions
  • Fragile instrument; might survive 1 meter drop
  • Do not submerse; can withstand rain
components controls and indicators

8.8.8 mR

- +

Components, Controls, and Indicators

Battery well

Display

Clip

Button

Speaker

Chirp icon

Battery icon

Autoranging 3-digit Unit of measure

prepare for operation
Prepare for Operation
  • Before-operation checks
    • Look for obvious damage
  • Install battery: 1 AAA
    • Positive terminal inside
  • Power up
    • Hold button until long beep, then release
    • Automatic power up when installing battery
  • Check dose reading is 0.0 mR
basic operating procedure
Basic Operating Procedure
  • Default is total dose
  • Check dose rate reading
    • Press button 1x
    • Display shows dose rate for 10 sec., returns to default
types of alarms
Types of Alarms
  • High radiation
    • Dose alarm
    • Dose rate alarm
  • Equipment fault
    • Overflow alarms
    • Battery alarms
dose or rate alarms
Dose or Rate Alarms
  • Alarm sounds when exceeding alarm set point
    • Dose alarm: display flash + 1 beep/sec.
    • Dose rate alarm: display flash + 4 beeps/sec.
    • Both: display flash + 4 beeps/sec.
dose or rate alarms cont
Dose or Rate Alarms (cont.)
  • To silence audible alarm: press button 1x
  • To reset alarm
    • Dose rate alarm stops when exposure is reduced
    • Dose alarm stops when dose is reset to zero
overflow alarms
Overflow Alarms
  • Occurs when meter exposure exceeds factory-set measurement upper level
    • Dose overflow (1000 R): display “doo” + 2 beeps/sec.
    • Rate overflow (300 R/h): display “dro” + 8 beeps/sec.
  • Cannot be reset until removed from exposure
battery alarms
Battery Alarms
  • Alarm during startup
    • Low battery: display shows battery symbol
    • Dead battery: failure to start
  • Alarm during operation
    • Low battery: battery symbol flashes, 1 long beep/hour
    • Dying battery: display “Lob” and 1 beep/sec.
      • Measurement functions stop
respond to alarms
Type of Alarm

Dose/rate alarm

Overflow alarm

Low battery alarm

Required Action

Take immediate action to reduce exposure

Silence and reset alarm

Shut down instrument, remove from area

Change battery

Respond to Alarms
equipment application
Equipment Application
  • Need for dosimetry
    • Personal exposure record
    • Alert user of high dose or dose rate
  • Wear on chest pocket
    • Instrument inside pocket – prevent dropping
    • Remove metal objects from pocket – avoid unintentional shielding
    • Place in plastic bag (optional)
after operating
After Operating
  • Power down procedure
    • Press button 2x
    • Display reads “OFF”
    • Hold button until long beep, release
  • Perform after-operation maintenance
  • Storage
    • Remove battery
    • Store in box with instructions
operator care and cleaning
Operator Care and Cleaning
  • Wipe exterior surfaces clean
  • Do not submerse; rain resistant but not water tight
    • If submersed—open battery well, shake out excess water, let it air dry
  • Avoid harsh solvents—may damage plastic case
change battery during operation
Change Battery During Operation
  • Replace battery if low battery alarm
  • Power Off; change battery; power On
    • Dose reading and settings not lost
isotrak doseguard summary
IsoTrak DoseGuard Summary
  • Understand capabilities, limitations, uses
  • Recognize components, controls, indicators
  • Perform basic operation
  • Understand operator maintenance
ultra radiac
Ultra Radiac

Personal Radiation Monitor

radiation monitor
Radiation Monitor
  • Capabilities
    • Measures and records gamma/x-ray dose and rate
    • Multiple user features, data logger, PC download
  • Limitations
    • Does not detect alpha, beta, neutrons
  • Best uses
    • Personal dosimeter and rate meter
    • Used by decon team outdoors
equipment safety precautions22
Equipment Safety Precautions
  • Do not submerse, but can withstand decon operations
digital display
Digital Display

Status indicators

Units of measure

Autoranging digital display

function keys
Function Keys
  • Rate and Dose keys: Display dose rate or dose
  • Alarm key: Display “stay time” in minutes
  • Light key: Power On backlight
  • Clear/Test key: Perform operational test
  • On/Off key: Power On and Off

Keys have other functions for advanced users

battery life indicator
Battery Life Indicator
  • Low battery: Flashing “BAT” in upper left corner
    • Less than 10 hours left
    • Press Clear/Test key to display minutes of battery left
  • Dying battery: Flashing “b” on blank display
    • Normal operation stopped
prepare for operation27
Prepare for Operation
  • Before-operation checks
    • Look for obvious damage
  • Install batteries: 4 AAA
    • Observe polarity indicator
    • Starts “sleep” mode
  • Power up
    • Press On/Off key
prepare for operation cont
Prepare for Operation (cont.)
  • Perform operational test
    • Hold Clear/Test key until “888” appears
    • Test alarm: Press Rate, Dose, or Alarm keys
    • After self-test: Flashing “9” = pass or “0” = fail
    • Press Clear/Test key
  • Check the dose is 0.00
basic operating procedures
Basic Operating Procedures
  • Check dose and dose rate
  • Turn on back light
  • Check stay time
  • Data logging
  • Alarms
check dose and dose rate
Check Dose and Dose Rate
  • Current dose rate
    • Normal default reading
    • Press Rate key from dose display
  • Total dose
    • Press Dose key
    • Returns to rate after 10 sec.
backlight
Backlight
  • Press Light key
    • Blue light for 10 sec.
  • Why can’t I see the light?
check stay time
Check Stay Time
  • Stay time = number of minutes to safely remain at current dose rate and not sound dose alarm
    • Based on current dose rate and dose alarm setting
  • Press Alarm button
    • Normal background = “999”
    • If rate increases with low dose alarm set point, stay time decreases
data logging
Data Logging
  • Log data point at:
    • Any dose alarm
    • End of normal shift
  • Records up to 300 events
    • Records date, time, dose, rate, etc.
  • Logging a data point
    • Power On, rate displayed
    • Hold Rate + Dose keys until number stops flashing
    • New number = log sequence
resetting alarms
Resetting Alarms
  • High rate alarms
    • Press Clear/Test key to still vibration alarm
    • Back away to stop audible and display alarms
  • Low rate alarms
    • Press Clear/Test key to still audible/vibration alarms
    • Back away until display alarm stops
  • Dose alarms
    • Press Clear/Test key to still audible/vibration alarms
    • Log the data point
respond to alarms37
Type of Alarm

High dose/rate alarm

Low dose/rate alarm

Low battery alarm

Required Action

Take immediate action to reduce exposure

Silence and reset alarm

Warn others of increased exposure

Silence and reset alarm

Change batteries

Respond to Alarms
equipment application38
Equipment Application
  • Decon line use
    • Personal exposure record
    • Alert user of high dose or dose rate
    • Use “source finder” mode as survey meter
  • Wear on belt
    • Instrument upside down, face out – flip up to read
after operating39
After Operating
  • Power down
    • Hold On/Off key until display shows “OFF”

then “- - -”

  • Perform after-operation maintenance
  • Storage
    • Remove batteries
    • Store in carry case
    • Store IR reader with RSO
operator care and cleaning40
Operator Care and Cleaning
  • Wipe exterior surfaces clean
  • Do not submerse—not water tight
  • Avoid harsh solvents—may damage plastic case
change batteries
Change Batteries
  • Replace batteries if low battery alarm
  • Power Off; change batteries; power On
    • Ensure correct orientation
    • Dose reading and settings not lost
  • Sleep mode starts automatically
    • Power On then Off to prevent battery drain
ultra radiac summary
Ultra Radiac Summary
  • Understand capabilities, limitations, uses
  • Recognize components, controls, indicators
  • Perform basic operation
  • Understand operator maintenance
radiation survey meter
Radiation Survey Meter

Responder kit and equipment

survey meter kit
Survey Meter Kit
  • Capabilities
    • Measures alpha, beta, gamma, x-ray dose rate
    • Complete kit in hard case
  • Limitations
    • Requires separate probes
    • No dosimeter function
  • Best uses
    • Area survey
    • Check radiation from contaminated person/object
equipment safety precautions45
Equipment Safety Precautions
  • Imbedded radioactive check source—keep covered
    • 1 μCi Cs-137 on side of case
  • Delicate pancake probe face, internal components; do not drop or puncture
  • High internal voltage; power Off before changing probes or opening case
major components
Major Components

Batteries

Hard carry case

Meter

Cable

Pancake probe

Gamma probe

additional components
Additional Components
  • Additional survey meter
  • Cable
  • Extension handle pancake probe
controls and indicators48

ON

F

AUD

OFF

OFF

S

RATEMETER

DET DET 1 2

SCALAR

LIGHT

CAL

RESET

Controls and Indicators

F/S toggle (response time)

Display

Audio toggle (chirp)

Probe connector

Detector toggle (parameters)

Power/mode switch

Calibration switch well

Light button

Reset button

Battery well

digital display49
Digital Display

Autoranging decimal and units

4-digit number

Units of measure

Status messages

Low battery icon

6-digit number (1st & 2nd digits)

prepare for operation50
Prepare for Operation
  • Before-operation checks
  • Install batteries – 2 D cells
    • Observe polarity indicator
  • Attach probe
    • Depends on intended use
visually inspect for damage
Inspection Point –

Instrument exterior

Radioactive source

Instrument display face

Instrument switches

Electrical connectors (all)

Battery well

Electrical cord

Probe exterior

Pancake probe face

Do not use (until fixed) if –

Cracked, broken open

Broken open, loose (missing?)

Cracked, broken open

Will not move

Cannot connect cord

Contacts corroded, lid won’t close

Frayed, torn open

Cracked, broken open

Punctured, torn

Visually Inspect for Damage
prepare for operation cont52
Prepare for Operation (cont.)
  • Set toggle switches for operating mode
    • Audio on/off, F/S, Detector 1/2
  • Power On: Set Mode switch to Ratemeter
    • Display shows background reading
  • Check operation with check source
inspect for proper operation
Inspection points –

Display reads correctly

Detector switch set for probe used

Reset button clears reading

Light button lights backlight

AUD toggle ON (chirps) and OFF (mute)

F/S toggle – no functional test

Do not use (troubleshoot) if –

Display blank or does not show correct data

Switch cannot be moved or parameters do not change

Display does not reset to zero before increasing to normal reading

(Can be used without light)

(Can be used without chirp)

(Can be used in either position)

Inspect For Proper Operation
basic operating procedures54
Basic Operating Procedures
  • Use clicker
  • Use gamma probe
  • Change probes
  • Use pancake probe
  • Alarms
use clicker
Use Clicker
  • Clicker sounds as dose rate increases
  • Enable using AUD toggle switch
    • Disable to mute audible alarm
use gamma probe
Use Gamma Probe
  • Setup
    • Attach gamma probe
    • Set toggle to DET 2
    • Set mode switch to Ratemeter
  • Use to search for gamma/x-ray radiation
    • Display reads radiation level in uR/h to R/h
    • Very sensitive to low level radiation
    • Fast clicker rate
change probes
Change Probes
  • Procedure
    • Power Off
    • Change probe
    • Set detector toggle switch
    • Power On
use pancake probe
Use Pancake Probe
  • Setup
    • Attach pancake probe or extension handle probe
    • Set toggles to DET 1, Fast mode (F)
    • Set mode switch to Ratemeter
    • Remove protective cover
  • Use to search for surface contamination
    • Display reads in cpm or kcpm (1000 counts/min)
    • Typical equivalent of ~3300 cpm per mR/h
respond to alarms59
Type of Alarm

Dose rate alarm -or-Overflow alarm -or- Overload alarm

Low battery icon

Required Action

Take immediate action to reduce exposure

Press reset button

Change batteries

Respond to Alarms
dose rate alarm
Dose Rate Alarm
  • Alarm sounds when exceeding preset level
    • Audible continuous sound; “ALARM” is displayed
    • Alarm is latched; must be acknowledged
  • To acknowledge: Press Reset 1x
  • To reset alarm: Press Reset 2x
dose rate alert
Dose Rate Alert
  • Alert shown when exceeding preset level
    • Lower setting than Alarm level
    • “ALERT” is displayed
    • Alert is latched; must be acknowledged
  • To acknowledge: Press Reset 1x
  • To reset if alarming: Press Reset 2x
overflow alarms62
Overflow Alarms
  • Overflow alarm: exceeded 100,000 counts
    • “OFLOW” is displayed
    • Remove probe from area, press Reset button
  • Overload alarm: radiation level above measurement capability
    • “OVERLOAD” is displayed
    • Back out of area
    • Reset: Press Reset button 2x
equipment application63
Equipment Application
  • Area survey
    • Use gamma probe
    • Area survey techniques
  • Frisk for contamination
    • Use pancake probe
    • Search techniques
area survey procedures
Area Survey Procedures
  • Use clicker for early warning
  • Enter area slowly
    • Hold probe waist high in front
    • Move probe side to side toward suspicious areas
  • Where to look
    • Walkways – material tracked in or out
    • Suspect materials spilled
    • Items touched by contaminated hands/gloves
personal search procedures
Personal Search Procedures
  • Clicker off to avoid panic
  • Check ambulatory person
    • Hands
    • Head and shoulders
    • Shoes
  • Check nonambulatory person
    • Hands and head
    • Both sides, shoulders to feet
materiel search procedures
Materiel Search Procedures
  • Equipment or objects
    • Handle
    • Bottom or other touched surface
    • Parts that extend from main object
  • Patients’ belongings
    • Bag items first
    • Hold bag and check both sides (gamma/x-ray)
    • Save for more thorough search later
quick vehicle search
Quick Vehicle Search
  • Look at YOUR vehicles
  • Driver/passenger area (contaminated person)
    • Floor and pedals
    • Items touched (steering wheel, door handles, radio, etc.)
    • Seats less likely
  • Exterior
    • Wheel well top inside (dust from below)
    • Windowsills/wiper wells (dust from above)
after operating68
After Operating
  • Power down
  • After-operation maintenance
  • Short term storage
    • Disconnect and store in case
    • Batteries in vs. out
  • Long term storage
    • Remove batteries, obtain new ones
    • Track calibration due date
operator care
Operator Care
  • Before operation checks
    • Visually inspect for damage
    • Verify proper operation upon power-up
  • After operation checks
    • Visually inspect for damage (same criteria)
    • Clean or decontaminate
cleaning procedures
Cleaning Procedures
  • Wipe exterior surfaces clean
    • Use care not to puncture pancake probe face
  • Do not submerse—rain resistant but not water tight
    • If submersed—open battery well and instrument case, shake out excess water, air dry
  • Avoid solvents that could damage polyurethane paint
survey meter summary
Survey Meter Summary
  • Recognize capabilities, limitations, uses
  • Recognize components, controls, indicators
  • Perform basic operating procedures
  • Understand operator maintenance
area monitor
Area Monitor
  • Capabilities
    • Measures gamma and x-ray dose rate
    • Wall mounted, 110 V
    • Internal and external alarm units
  • Limitations
    • Does not detect beta, alpha, or neutrons
    • No dosimeter function
    • One hard wired remote per monitor
  • Best use
    • Fixed site monitor
equipment safety precautions74
Equipment Safety Precautions
  • High internal voltage; power Off and unplug before any service
  • Fragile internal components; do not drop
  • Indoors or fair weather use only
major components75
Major Components

Model 272 remote alarm

Model 375-10 Digital Area Monitor

controls and indicators76
Controls and Indicators

Status LEDs

Calibration controls

Digital display

Adjustment buttons

controls and indicators cont
Controls and Indicators (cont.)

Alarm

RS-232 port

110 V AC

Ethernet

Power switch

Relay

Detector center point

Left Side

Right Side

controls and indicators cont78
Controls and Indicators (cont.)

Alarm

Reset button

Toggle switches

RS 232 port

Status LEDs

Analog monitor

prepare for operation79
Prepare for Operation
  • Inspect for damage
  • Check connections
  • Adjust alarm horn volume: rotate horn cover
  • Power on
basic operating procedures80
Basic Operating Procedures
  • Normal monitoring
  • Alarms
normal monitoring
Normal Monitoring
  • Fixed site monitor
    • Power On when used or 24/7
    • Check status LEDs and display periodically
  • Network monitoring
    • May be used as additional remote monitor
respond to alarms82
Type of Alarm

Dose rate alarm

High: fast beep + High LED

Low: slow beep + Low LED

Detector Fail alarm

Det Fail LED + steady tone

Low battery Alarm

Low Bat + Det Fail LEDs

Overload alarm

Display “OL” + Det Fail LED

Required Actions

Take immediate action to investigate cause

Reset latched alarm

Check power supply; return for service

Check power supply

Take immediate action to Investigate cause

Respond to Alarms
equipment application83
Equipment Application
  • Fixed site monitor
    • Mount near entry to monitored location
    • Alerts occupants to source coming in/near door
  • Security monitors the remote or PC
operator care and cleaning84
Operator Care and Cleaning
  • Power Off and unplug before cleaning
  • Wipe exterior surfaces clean
  • Do not submerse
  • Avoid solvents that could damage polyurethane paint
area monitor summary
Area Monitor Summary
  • Recognize capabilities, limitations, uses
  • Recognize components, controls, indicators
  • Know how to operate
operator competency check
Operator Competency Check
  • For each instrument:
    • Prepare for operation
    • Check readings
    • Shut down
  • For dosimeters: explain how it is worn and used
  • For survey meters: explain survey procedures
    • People, equipment, vehicles
new equipment summary
New Equipment Summary
  • Familiarization with the equipment
  • Basic operating procedures
  • Basic operator maintenance