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Preservation = Access Music Archives at IRCAM as an Online Library Collection Michael Fingerhut Director, Multimedia Library IRCAM – Centre Pompidou Paris (France) Roadmap IRCAM Integrating collections Access Preservation Issues By-products

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preservation access music archives at ircam as an online library collection

Preservation = AccessMusic Archives at IRCAMas an Online Library Collection

Michael Fingerhut

Director, Multimedia LibraryIRCAM – Centre PompidouParis (France)

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

roadmap
Roadmap
  • IRCAM
  • Integrating collections
  • Access
  • Preservation
  • Issues
  • By-products

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

ircam i nstitut de r echerche et c oordination a coustique m usique
IRCAM – Institut de recherche et coordination acoustique/musique
  • A multidisciplinary not-for-profit organization
    • Music and dance composition and production  audio (video) archives
    • R&D in acoustics, digital signal processing, real-time systems, perception and cognition, music representation  published texts
    • Degree-granting programs in computer music and musicology
    • Outreach (conferences, concerts)  published texts, audio archives
  • A brief history
    • 1970: President Pompidou asks Pierre Boulez to found an institute
    • 1976: Giuseppe di Giugno and his team produce the 4A
    • 1978: First concert in the Espro (modular concert hall)
    • 1981: 4X. Répons by Boulez
    • 1983: Ircam connects to int’l networks (uucp)
    • 1988: The graphical programming language Max (Miller Puckette)
    • 1992: Laurent Bayle director

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

the ircam documents until 1995
The IRCAM documents until 1995
  • Publications
    • Articles in peer-reviewed external periodicals
    • IRCAM books and periodicals
    • Manuals (software, hardware, performance…)
    • Other (design documents, letters…)
  • Sound archives
    • Concerts and conferences since 1977
    • On analog and digital tapes
    • Could record but not listen to
  • Reference library
    • Books, scores, periodicals, LPs, CDs
    • Proprietary, stand-alone catalog

Inexistent as

a collection

Existent but

inaccessible

Own scores

unlistenable

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

the music library
The music library
  • Until 1995: a "traditional" library
    • Books, scores, periodicals on contemporary music and related fields
  • Since 1996: a public multimedia library
    • Books, scores, periodicals
    • Online material (mostly IRCAM’s):
      • Texts (music, sciences)
      • Audio (archives and commercial)
      • Video (documentary films)
      • CD-ROM
      • Databases
      • Internet
  • Open to everyone
    • Public:
      • Composers, choreographers, musicologists and performers; researchers; students…
      • any interested person
    • On- and off-site

Juxtaposition  integration

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

the multimedia library collections
The Multimedia Library collections

Library system

bibliographic records

authority records

composers’ records

works records

Musical database

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

access principles of organization
AccessPrinciples of organization
  • Establish links according to significance
    • Score – recording – music analysis – composer’s bio…
    • Specific links “into” the audio (and video):extension of URL fragment identifier to image, audio, video…
  • Unified structure, different paths and views
    • Collection searches
    • General catalog searches
    • Classification scheme
    • Floor plan
    • 3D (virtual reality) interface
  • Specific search tools
    • By detailed recording information
    • By instrumentation, by music genre…

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

archive recordings as library items
Archive recordings as library items
  • An archive recording is like
    • … a CD
    • … a copy of a work
  • It can be catalogued and referenced
    • Unimarc (with extensions for detailed instrumentation; performance?)
    • Uniform title allows one to find scores and recordings of the same work
  • It is accessed like an audio CD
    • Archives are compressed and stored on hard disks (RAID)
    • CDs are stored in jukeboxes
    • Listening on demand

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

gateway to the system
Gateway to the system

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

search by genre
Search by genre

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

search by instrumentation
Search by instrumentation

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

links between documents
Links between documents

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

listening to a recording
Listening to a recording

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

digitization the process
DigitizationThe process

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

audio archives processing
Audio archives processing
  • Digitize old tapes
    • Digitization
    • Basic editing
  • Produce two mixed CDs
    • 1st track: metadata - detailed info about contents and event
    • 1 for archival purposes, 1 for library
  • (Verify quality and info)
  • Extract from CD to hard disk and compress
    • MPEG 1 Layer 2, CCETT software
  • (Verify quality)
  • Reference
    • Catalogues, databases

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

metadata contents track 1
Metadata contents (track 1)
  • Recording information
    • Date of digitization, technician’s name
    • Original tape inventory n°…
    • Number of tracks
  • Event information
    • Date, name, place…
    • Performers, orchestra, conductor…
  • Track information
    • Lecture/concert
    • Composer, title, duration…

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

issues
Issues
  • Rights
  • Personnel
  • Standards

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

rights
Rights
  • Rights holders for the archives
    • SACEM (Société des auteurs, compositeurs et éditeurs de musique): collects rights for composers and publishers
    • SPEDIDAM (Société de perception et de distribution des droits des artistes-interprètes de la musique et de la danse): collects rights for performers
    • EIC (Ensemble Intercontemporain): intellectual rights
  • Constraints
    • Economical: fixed fee per computer client (hence only on site)
    • Listeners should have no way to copy the music (hence no physical access; hence only on site)

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

standards
Standards

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

library and related personnel
Library and related personnel
  • Sound engineer, technicians
    • Perform the technical steps from tape to compressed file
  • Musicologist
    • Validate the audio quality and the information
  • Cataloguers
    • Reference the material (with hyperlinks)
  • Computer scientist
    • Provide the tools and oversee the process

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

by products
By-products
  • Online music analyses
  • Online synchronized scores and recordings
  • Multimedia products
  • Tools for research

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

an online score with audio ligeti s artikulation the horpartitur
An online score with audio: Ligeti’s Artikulation (the Horpartitur)

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

an online score with audio ligeti s artikulation diagramme
An online score with audio: Ligeti’s Artikulation (Diagramme)

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

an online score with audio xenakis psappha
An online score with audio:Xenakis’ Psappha

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

digitization preservation access
Digitization = Preservation = Access?
  • Increasing volume of recordings
  • Media limited life-time
    • 10 – 20 years?
  • Obsolescence of hardware and software
  • Changing standards
    • AU, AIFF, ALAW, MP3, MPEG, MP3, MOD, MULAW, SND, VOC, WAV…
  • In order to preserve, transcode (and lose)

$ t = c

Digitization

Preservation = access

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

slide27
$t = c
  • Industry:
    • maximum return in minimum time
  • Academia:
    • maximum publications (= salary) in minimum time
  • Technology:
    • the more technology - the less it lasts
  • Access:
    • the more “readers” - the less the document lasts (except for the Bible)
  • Archives:
    • maximum time in minimum cost

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

current and future research
Current and future research
  • New standards
    • Audio/video: MP3, Real audio, Real video, Quicktime?
    • Metadata: XML?
  • Searching tools
    • Musical material parsing into motifs for automatic classification
    • Search by excerpts (not note, phrase or melody)
    • Psychoacoustical criteria
  • Online pedagogical and musicological tools
    • Multimedia
    • 3D, virtual reality, virtual worlds

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

references
References

(C) Ircam - Centre Pompidou 2000

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