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  2. CIHEAM-MAI.B Land and Water ManagementResearch lines NWRM - Non-conventional Water Resources Management WUE - Water Use Efficiency CIS - Collective Irrigation Systems since the beginning of nineties

  3. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B Regional Action Programme (1998-2002) “WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT”

  4. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) RAP “Water Resources Management” Objectives • The RAP-WRM aims • to improve the institutional capacity building, human resources development, regional cooperation and exchange of experiences in the field of water resources and irrigation. • The RAP-WRM is • based on the concept of water demand management and • is oriented to the sustainable use of water resources in agricultural sector emphasizing technical, social and economic aspects.

  5. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) Programme “Water Resources Management” Water Resources in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions of the Mediterranean Major problems and constraints Public Industry 8% • Water scarcity • Degradation of water quality • Inefficient water use • Limited information • Policy overlaps • Fragmented management of water between sectors and institutions 13% 79% 79% Agriculture Agriculture Effectively used by crop 45% The solution Water saving in all the sectorial water uses and, in particular, in irrigated agriculture, the largest consumer of water (80%) and with major losses (55%)

  6. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) Programme“Water Resources Management” ACTIONS Economical Technical Social Use and Re-use of Increase of Optimization and non-conventional irrigation water management of water resources collective irrigation use efficiency systems Participatory Irrigation Allocation Efficiency & Management (PIM) & Water valuation Water User Associations - WUAs Capacity Building Institutional improvement · · HRD (Human Resources Development)

  7. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) Regional Action Programme“Water Resources Management” 1st year 1998-1999 2nd year 1999-2000 PHASE I 2nd year 2001-2002 1st year 2000-2001 PHASE II • Training Activities • Collaborative Research Activities • Aid for Decision Making • Logistic Support - ICT development • Plant Protection Study (phase I) ACTIVITIES

  8. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) Regional Action Programme“Water Resources Management” Phase II: 2000-2002 IAM-Bari NWRC- Cairo

  9. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) Regional Action Programme “Water Resources Management” Logistic Support Aid to Decision Making Research Project “WASIA” Research Networks M.Sc. Mobilization Program Advanced Short Courses Activities

  10. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) Programme “Water Resources Management” Advanced Short Courses main considerations • The themes of Advanced Short Courses were defined considering: • the whole set of priority actions for water saving in the Mediterranean region as it has adopted in the logical framework • specific interest of the countries hosting the course • recommendations of Technical Working Group (TWG), and • thematic link among proposed topics and among them and collaborative research networks and overall RAP objectives.

  11. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Advanced Short Courses12 in 8 beneficiary countries Kahramanmaras, September 2001 Algiers, October 2002 Malta, March 2000 Adana, October 1999 Settat, September 1999 Tunis, May 1999 Beirut, May 2000 Tunis, December 2002 Agadir, April 2002 Amman, March 2001 • Candidates: 708 • Participants: 348 from 18 countries • 318 participants (91.6%) from 10 beneficiary • countries (LF threshold was 240) • Proceedings distributed during the course and • available also on the IAMB RAP web site Cairo, April 2000 Cairo, June 2001

  12. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Advanced Short Courses participants/country

  13. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Advanced Short Courses professional profile of the participants

  14. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) Programme “Water Resources Management” Training: Mobilization of M.Sc. students • Twelve hosting Mediterranean Institutions: • Egypt (National Water Research Center - Cairo; Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring - Kanater; Drainage Research Institute - Cairo), • Italy (University of Catania; University of Trieste; National Research Center - CNR, Bari; Polytechnics of Bari), • Lebanon (Saint-Esprit de Kaslik University, Beirut; ESIAM, Tamail), • Morocco (IAV Hassan II, Agadir), • Tunisia (INAT, Tunis) and • Turkey (Cukurova University, Adana). • 19 trainees from 6 beneficiary countries (Algeria 1, Egypt 6, Lebanon 2, Morocco 4, Tunisia 3, Turkey 1) and Palestine (2)  the LF indicates a minimum of 16 Master thesis

  15. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Mobility of trainees - Outputs and Comments • The main objectives of the mobility of MSc trainees: • human resources development through the realization of research works by means of exchange of scientists, ideas and research approaches in the Mediterranean; • greater cooperation between the IAMB and other Mediterranean scientific institutions and universities in developing MSc programme; • better understanding of the local-specific water problems and searching for the common solutions for water saving in the Mediterranean. • Achievements: • reinforcement of cooperation between Southern scientific institutions (e.g. IAV Hassan II, Morocco and INAT, Tunisia) • establishment of cooperation between Southern and Northern Institutions (e.g NWRC-Cairo, Egypt and University of Catania, CNR-Bari, etc). • Expectations: • recognition of the MSc degree awarded by CIHEAM-IAMB in the majority of the Mediterranean countries and mutual recognition of diplomas obtained at different universities and scientific institutions throughout the Mediterranean region.

  16. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management CIHEAM-MAIB Cooperative Research Networks WATER NWR CIS WUE SAVING

  17. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) Programme “Water Resources Management” Research Networkssynthesis of results and outputs 1 • 32 scientific institutions from 15 countries with the participation of 66 scientists • experimental works at: IAMB, in Morocco (IAV Hassan II, Agadir), Egypt (NWRC, Cairo), Syria (ICARDA, Aleppo), Tunisia (INAT, Tunis; IRESA, Bizerte), Turkey (Gaziantep Pistachio Research Institute), Italy (Faculty of Agriculture, Catania; Bonifica della Capitanata, Foggia), etc. • a Crop Database about 8 strategic Mediterranean crops • a Crop Growth and Productivity Model + interface linking model and GIS • a database on the performances of collective irrigation systems together with a user friendly software package for the analysis of CIS and demand hydrograph generation + Information Manual • guidelines for the use of treated sewage water in agriculture

  18. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) Programme “Water Resources Management” Research Networkssynthesis of results and outputs 2 • 68 MSc students from 9 countries (Algeria 4; Bosnia and Herzegovina 1; Egypt 15; Lebanon 12; Morocco 14; Palestine 5; Syria 1; Tunisia 11; Turkey 5) • 12 advanced short courses were organized with the participation of 347 trainees from 18 countries • 7 annual meetings of three Sub-Networks • 23 bilateral meetings of the network partners • 131 scientific papers were published in scientific journals and proceedings of conferences, workshops, advanced short courses, etc. • 3 books and 24 special publications

  19. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Research Project“WAter Saving in Irrigated Agriculture(WASIA)” General objective: • to develop a conceptual framework for water saving in agriculture through the integration of • Water Use Efficiency in cropping practices (WUE), • Performance of Collective Irrigation Systems (CIS), and • Use of Non-conventional Water Resources (NWR) NWR WUE CIS

  20. EC/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) Research Project “WAter Saving in Irrigated Agriculture (WASIA)” PILOT AREAS South-east Anatolian Region, Turkey Tarsus Res. Institute, Turkey Ghezala Irrigation District, Tunisia Agadir, Morocco INAT, Tunis, Tunisia ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria Souss-Massa Irrigation District, Morocco Nile Delta, Egypt

  21. RESEARCH LAYOUT and LEVEL of NETWORKS INTERACTION Pilot Area Research Theme Interaction Level Regulated Deficit Irrigation of orchards with low quality water INAT, Tunis, Tunisia WUE NWR CIS Regulated Deficit Irrigation of pistachio with low quality water Southeast Anatolian region, Turkey WUE NWR CIS Hydraulics performances of irrigation systems under different irrigation practices Ghezala Irrigation District, Tunisia CIS WUE NWR Energy saving in irrigation by means of improved irrigation practices (not realized) Souss-Massa Irr. District, Morocco CIS WUE NWR Agadir, Morocco NWR WUE CIS Reuse of treated wastewater with different irrigation methods Nile Delta, Egypt NWR WUE CIS Re-cycling of drainage water for sustainable irrigated agriculture Use of artesian highly saline water for irrigation of cereals and vegetable crops Tarsus Research Institute, Turkey NWR WUE CIS ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria NWR WUE CIS Development of screening legumes and forage nursery for salinity tolerance Water Saving in Irrigated Agriculture

  22. EC/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) Research Project “WAter Saving in Irrigated Agriculture (WASIA)” Main results and outputs • Quantification of water saving at 7 experimental sites applying different water management strategies • Development ofdatabasesandsoftware packages • Interaction between different aspects of water saving (NWM, WUE, CIS) traces a way for improved water management strategies in irrigated agriculture • The research findings at 7 experimental sites are transformed inGUIDELINES - CRITERIA: • for deficit irrigation strategies • for use of treated wastewater, saline water and reuse of drainage water in irrigation • for management of collective irrigation systems • The integration of these guidelines leads towards the creation of a conceptual framework for water saving in irrigated agriculture

  23. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Logistic Support: ICT developmentActivities • Training: 4 “on-demand” Short Courses were held in Tunisia on the use of new information technologies, multimedia and distance learning (108 participants) • Workshop on “Meta-Information System for the Mediterranean Region” (Bari, October 18-19, 2000) and participation to several Seminars (Université d’Eté) • RAP-WRM web siteat URL: encompassing the main project’s activities and outputs • INFO-MED System: for communication, information exchange and scientific data access in agriculture • Hardware and Software supply for experimental fields of research networks and, especially, for facilitating access to Internet and communication among the partners

  24. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Logistic Support: ICT development INFO-MED SYSTEM for communication, information exchange and scientific data access in agriculture ICARDA, Syria 2 Workstations IAV Hassan II, Agadir Workstation IRAL, Beirut Web Server NWRC, Cairo Other RAP partners Realized (phase II) Realized (phase I)

  25. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Logistic Support: ICT developmentProfile of the participants in the courses

  26. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management STUDIES on"Production and exchange of virus-free plant propagating material in the Mediterranean region" • Carried out in the phase I (1998-2000) with the participation of 10 beneficiary countries + Albania • Objectives: • to define and propose common phytosanitary rules regarding production, conservation and use of plant propagating material in order to facilitate the movement of this material throughout the Mediterranean seen as a free-trade area • Round table Meeting (Bari, Oct., 1999) on the assessment of current situation and comparative analysis of the sector with the participation of decision-makers appointed by Ministers of Agriculture of 11 Mediterranean countries and experts from international institutions (EPPO, IAMB and University of Bari). • Results and outcomes of the study were published in a special number of Option Méditerranéennes, Sér. B/n°35 – Production and Exchange of virus-free Plant Propagating material in the Mediterranean Region (2001)

  27. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Aid for Decision Making • Objectives: • to give to decision makers guidelines and strategies for implementing new social and economic reforms in the irrigation sector via appropriate measures such as participatory irrigation management, gender issues consideration, water valuation and cost recovery mechanisms. • “Participatory Irrigation Management and Water User Associations” • 3 TOT courses on “Capacity Building for PIM and WUAs”, IAMB, 1999-2001, in cooperation with the World Bank, IFAD and INPIM. • “Economic Aspects of Water Mobilization and Use” • Workshop on “Water Valuation and Cost Recovering Mechanisms in the Developing Countries of the Mediterranean Region”, Agadir, June 2002 • “Gender Issues for Mediterranean agriculture” • Workshop on “"Gender and water resources management in the Mediterranean”, Cairo, October 2002

  28. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Activities on “PIM & WUAs” • Objectives: • to stimulate high level policy dialogue on PIM the Mediterranean region leading to a policy commitment programming actions with the specific objectives to introduce policy-makers to the implementation of PIM • 3 TOT courses, 209 candidates, 147 participants from 20 countries - 83 from 7 beneficiary countries • 5-volumes proceedings including the PIM in the Mediterranean Countries • high interest - governments ask for the participation of additional number of candidates with full coverage of their expenses; • many participants from the PIM Projects supported by the USAID in the region, as well as those supported financially by the International Organizations (FAO, World Bank, IFAD)

  29. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management PIM & WUAsparticipants/course 58 43 41

  30. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Aid for Decision Making - PIM courses origin of the participants

  31. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Activities on “Economic Aspects of Water mobilization and use” • Objectives: • to give the opportunity to decision-makers in the Mediterranean region to present, share and discuss various experiences relevant to the subject and to elaborate strategies and plans of actions for implementation of measures which could lead to a better valuation of irrigation water and appropriate cost recovery mechanisms. • Workshop on “Water valuation and cost recovery mechanisms in the developing countries of the Mediterranean region”, Agadir, June 2002, as a special session of the International conference on "Irrigation water policies – micro and macro considerations” • 200 participants on the Conference - 14 from 8 beneficiary countries • proceedings of the Workshop distributed in more than 200 copies during the Conference and published as a special volume of "Options méditerranéennes"

  32. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Activities on “Economic Aspects of Water mobilization and use” • Recommendations from the Workshop - as an Aid for Decision Makers: • Irrigation policies should play a regulatory role with regard to objectives of equity, natural resources protection and water market creation; • Tariffs will not be an effective tool for economizing on water as long as they do not relate available water volumes to irrigation water prices; Tariffs should have social, economic, political and environmental objectives and consequences; • Irrigation water tariffs and recovery policies should aim to guarantee irrigation infrastructure maintenance and replacement and ensure sound water services for agricultural uses; • The application of irrigation water tariffs and charge recovery policies should take into consideration the local, regional and/or national and socio-economic conditions, as well as the macro-economic orientations of irrigation development. • Water prices should integrate the elements adapted to the specific context of irrigation projects, simultaneously ensuring agricultural development, risk aversion and water saving.

  33. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Activities on “Gender Issues for Mediterranean Agriculture” • Objectives: • to arise the importance of gender issues in the Mediterranean agriculture, to gather and exchange knowledge and experiences in this fields and to propose concrete actions for conversion of gender policies into practice • Workshop on "Gender and water resources management in the Mediterranean", Cairo, October 12-14, 2002, as a special session of the First Regional Conference on "Perspectives of Arab Water Cooperation: Challenges, Constraints and Opportunities” • more than 100 participants - 17 from 10 beneficiary countries • proceedings with gender issues experiences in each of 10 beneficiary country • Recognition of an urgent need for the establishment of a network to put together the local institutions, NGOs, stakeholders and water user associations working on gender issues in the Mediterranean region.

  34. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Activities on “Gender Issues for Mediterranean Agriculture” • Recommendations from the Workshop - as an Aid for Decision Makers: • Irrigation is a crucial part of the broader movement of gender mainstreaming in agricultural and rural development in the Mediterranean, and, indeed, should be seriously considered by a wide array of people from grassroots women's organizations to international development and financing agencies • Due to the changes in cultural trends, women labor forces are growing in number, yet, the accumulated knowledge from presented case studies and experiences achieved did not give the appropriate insight that could effectively guide the policy and interventions • The slow conversion of gender policies into practice, particularly in water resources management and irrigation, is the result of the following: • The lack of analytical tools and appropriate concepts • The lack of generic conceptual framework and appropriate implementation methodologies, beside the absence of gender performance indicators and above all the vague and weak roles of irrigation institutions and agencies

  35. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Overall synthesis of results and outputs in numbers • 30 national institutions and Universities from 10 beneficiary countries, 7 Italian partners and 5 International organisations have been involved directly in the program along with about 1105 persons from 31 countries around the world. • 1026 (or 92.9%) participants were from the Mediterranean region, while 887 (or 80.3%) were from 10 Mediterranean countries, beneficiaries of the RAP • The activities have resulted in: 19 short-term courses, tens of experimental works and 68 MSc theses, 19 mobility MSc programs, research works at 7 pilot locations in the Mediterranean, 2 important workshops, numerous meetings and reports, 131 scientific papers, several research manuals, guidelines and databases, 24 special publications, 3 books …

  36. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Participants per region (1105 from 31 countries)

  37. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Participants from 10 beneficiary countries

  38. Italy • Bari Univ. • Polytechnics of Bari • Catania Univ. • Foggia Irr. Consortia • Univ. Of Trieste • CNR - Bari • International • FAO, Rome • ICARDA, Aleppo • IFAD, Rome • World Bank, Washington • INPIM, Washington • Turkey • Cukurova Univ. • Karahmanmaras Univ Bari Institute • Syria • Min. of Agric. • Malta • Min. of Agric. • Inst. Water Tech. • Tunisia • Min. of Agric. • INRAT, Ariana • IRESA, Tunis • INAT, Tunis • Cyprus • Min. of Agric. • ARI, Nicosia • Lebanon • Min. of Agric. • NRC, Beirut • LARI. Beirut • ISIAM, Tamail • Sant-Esprit de • Kaslik Univ. • Morocco • Ministry of Agriculture • IAV Hassan II, Rabat • IAV Hassan II, Agadir • INRA, Settat • MAAE, Rabat • Algeria • Min. of Agriculture • INSID, Alger NWRC- Cairo • Egypt • Min. of Water Res. • and Irrigation • Min. of Agriculture • ARC • NRC • CLEQM • Jordan • Amman Univ. RAP-WRM Partners

  39. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Synthesis of results and outputs 1 • The valuation of the progress reports and evaluation sheets of the training program of RAP-WRM which has underlined the following: • There is an overall appreciation of the topics and training approach implemented by the Bari Institute; • The majority of the trainees agrees that the knowledge acquired during the training is of great importance for efficient water use in irrigated agriculture and for practical implementation in their professional work; • The greatest number of participants work already at important positions at academic and governmental level which would support their ability to implement and transfer the knowledge acquired during the program • Most of the RAP trainees represents the driving forces for the establishment and operation of the national networks and training programs, realization of research projects, the dissemination of information and regional cooperation.

  40. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management Synthesis of results and outputs 2 • The RAP-WRM is not confined to itself but it should be seen as an opportunity to add durable values to the overall training, research and co-operation that CIHEAM is promoting within the Mediterranean Region, considering it as a Euro-Mediterranean space open for partnership and development. • The activities have contributed in the generation of new programs and projects: • WASAMED (Water Saving in Mediterranean Agriculture) Thematic Network comprehends 42 partners from 16 Mediterranean countries • MEDCOASTLAND (Mediterranean Co-ordination of Land Conservation Management to Combat Land Degradation for the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources in the Mediterranean Coastal Zone) project involves 36 partners from 13 Mediterranean countries • a project on PIM implementation in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Armenia, financed by IFAD • special PIM training programs for experts from Kirgyzstan and Uzbekistan, on the request of the World Bank

  41. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management PERSPECTIVES AND PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE • based on the results and experiences of RAP 1998-2002, recommendations of TWG and experts from beneficial Mediterranean countries • INTEGRATED LAND AND WATER MANGEMENT FOR WATER SAVING IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE • integration • horizontal: land and water; supply and demand, quantity and quality, conjunctive use of fresh and non-conventional water and surface and groundwater • vertical: including farmers, WUAs, NGOs, research institutes, universities, decision makers and governments • extension of results and compatibility of approaches • modernization of agriculture and use of new information technologies • regional quantitative assessment of water productivity of cropping systems • consideration of “human factor in water saving projects” - networking • consolidation of a dialogue on: • Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) • Water valuation and Cost Recovery Mechanisms • Gender Issues

  42. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management PERSPECTIVES AND PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE • Due to the process of globalization, for a region heading towards an open trade, it is important • to increase not only the food productivity but also the quality of agricultural products, and • to reduce pollution and degradation of water quality • Therefore, the programme should also include: • SANITARILY-IMPROVED AND SAFE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION - PLANT PROPAGATING MATERIAL • ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

  43. EC (EuropeAid)/CIHEAM-MAI.B RAP (1998-2002) - Water Resources Management PERSPECTIVES AND PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE • SANITARILY-IMPROVED AND SAFE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION - PLANT PROPAGATING MATERIAL • harmonization of phytosanitary legislation in the region • improvement of services and facilities related to nursery and fruit production to internationally accepted standards • production, exchange and certification of healthy true-to-type propagating material • ORGANIC AGRICULTURE • promotion of organic agriculture and its relation with environment • harmonization of legal, regulatory, technical and commercial aspects • development of adequate institutional setting and implementation of standardized regulatory framework • assessment of the organic market evolution in the Mediterranean area